2005 Progress Report: Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE)

EPA Grant Number: R828771
Center: HSRC (2001) - Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
Center Director: Bouwer, Edward J.
Title: Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE)
Investigators: Bouwer, Edward J. , Alavi, Hedy
Institution: The Johns Hopkins University , University of Maryland - College Park , Morgan State University , University of Connecticut
Current Institution: The Johns Hopkins University
EPA Project Officer: Klieforth, Barbara I
Project Period: October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2007
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005
Project Amount: $6,000,000
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (2001) Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Land and Waste Management

Objective:

The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) completed its fourth year under EPA’s Hazardous Substances Research Centers (HSRC) Program (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005). The CHSUE is a cooperative activity between Johns Hopkins University (lead institution), University of Maryland, Morgan State University, University of Connecticut, and New Jersey Institute of Technology and covers EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3. About 80 percent of the U.S. population lives in metropolitan areas. These urban residents face a number of pressing environmental problems including exposure to toxic chemicals from contaminated sites, landfills, incinerators, abandoned industrial sites (Brownfields), industrial releases, lead, and pesticide use. In this context, EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 have identified “urban livability” as a strategic priority.

Focusing on the upper mid-Atlantic to the Northeast, the objectives of the CHSUE are to: (1) promote a better understanding of physical, chemical, and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and managing risks associated with the use and disposal of hazardous substances in urban environments; and (2) disseminate the results of the research and provide technical expertise to various stakeholders including community groups, municipal officials, regulators, academia, and industry.

Progress Summary:

Through a combination of laboratory- and field-scale research, the projects within the CHSUE continue to address contaminants and sources that are known to be prevalent in urban environments. These include gas and particulate emissions of mercury, other toxic metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sites and hazardous waste incinerators; chromium, arsenic, nickel, zinc, and cadmium in waters and soils; and chlorinated solvents in waste site gases, soils, sediments, and groundwater. The progress with the CHSUE’s research program is described in this section. The CHSUE solicited new proposals in spring 2003, and six new research projects were initiated on October 1, 2003, and will continue through Year 5 of the Center. The progress made on these new projects is discussed in this report.

Second Set of Research Projects and Participants

Risks to humans from toxic materials in urban environments come from contaminated groundwater and airborne particles and from direct or indirect exposure to contaminated soils. Several of the current research projects within this Center are aimed at better quantifying the sources and cycling of toxicants and exposure pathways. Improvements in characterizing the sources and pathways will, in turn, make it possible to determine whether exposure levels have been or will be high enough to cause adverse health effects. Improved exposure assessment can be used to determine priorities for risk management and for determining appropriate clean-up levels for contaminated sites.

Once the risks of exposure from urban sites are quantified, risk management will be implemented to prevent or control the impact of toxic materials on human health and ecological systems. Risk management decisions generally consider the technical feasibility of treatment methods along with societal values and economics. Some of the current research projects that address exposure pathways also provide information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation as a means to reduce risks at contaminated sites. One current research project is reviewing the research needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 to aid the Center in developing future relevant research projects.

Participants in the Research Program. The interdisciplinary and multimedia nature of urban environmental problems demands a diverse array of scientific talent and facilities. The affiliation and expertise of each Principal Investigator for the Year 4 research program is detailed below:

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Lead Institution). Faculty from the Departments of Geography and Environmental Engineering (DoGEE), Mechanical Engineering (ME), and Chemistry at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) are participating in the current research projects:

Director: Edward Bouwer (DoGEE) (environ. engr., bioremediation, and engineered microbiology)
Associate Director: Hedy Alavi (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, hazardous waste and solid waste management)
William Ball (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, contaminant fate and transport)
Howard Fairbrother (Chemistry) (surface spectroscopy and catalysis, and corrosion process)
Charles Meneveau (ME) (turbulence modeling, large-eddy simulation)
Charles O’Melia (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, colloid chemistry)
Marc Parlange (DoGEE) (environmental fluid mechanics)
Alan Stone (DoGEE) (environmental inorganic chemistry)

University of Maryland. Faculty from the Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL) (Solomons, MD) and the Department of Chemistry (College Park, MD) at the University of Maryland (UM) are participating in a current research project:

Joel Baker (CBL) (transport and fate of organic compounds in environmental media)
Robert Mason (CBL) (transport and fate of mercury in environmental media)
John Ondov (Chemistry) (movement and chemistry of aerosol particles)

Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland. The following three faculty from the School of Engineering at Morgan State University (MSU) are participating in a current research project:

Guangming Chen (Industrial) (risk assessment, experimental design and statistics)
G.B. Oguntimein (Civil) (chemical engineering, hazardous waste management, bioremediation)
Sedley Williams (Civil) (soil chemistry, water quality analysis, environ. assessment, GIS)

University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut. Faculty from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Connecticut (UConn) are participating in the current research projects:

Allison MacKay (Environmental Engineer) (environmental organic chemistry, contaminant hydrology)
Barth Smets (Environmental Engineer) (contaminant biotransformations, microbial ecology)

Current Research Projects

Six research projects were funded beginning in Year 3 of the Center. The project title, list of collaborators, and brief summary of the goals and results for the past year of effort for the current research projects are given below. There is a separate annual report summary for each of the funded projects that provides more details about the progress and future activities of each project. Funding for the research program was terminated by EPA in Year 5. The current research projects are under no-cost extensions through September 30, 2006 to complete the work.

R828771C004: Measurements and Large Eddy Simulations of Plume Dispersion in an Urban Boundary Layer Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas. This project is addressing movement of airborne particles in urban environments to improve our capability of quantifying exposure pathways. A computational simulation tool is being developed to address potential exposure pathways in urban environments from airborne particles. Computer simulations of air movement and pollutant transport in urban environments are especially challenging due to the complex ground topology typically found in cities. A building cluster, consisting of a group of buildings of roughly comparable size, is expected to provide the most complicated flow patterns because the flow interference among the buildings needs to be considered. The large eddy simulation (LES) code was extended during the past year to consider the resolution at which buildings in cities and towns must be resolved to realistically simulate the lower atmosphere. The use and tests of the immersed boundary method for complex geometry showed that the minimum requirement for reasonably resolving the flow around a bluff body is roughly six to eight grid points across the body. This means we will have to resolve individual buildings with at least six points across each building. Experiments underway involve an intensive field campaign of the real atmospheric flow in the vicinity of buildings at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) campus. A wide array of instruments is being used to measure the local turbulence and vertical profiles around the buildings. For instance, high resolution wind and temperature profiles are measured with RASS and Sodar systems and heat and momentum fluxes are measured with scintillometers. Other measurement systems include sonic anemometers, radiation, temperature, and ramanlidar profiling of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. During the final year of the project, the role of building resolution, atmospheric stability, and the heating of buildings will be addressed.

R828771C012: Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II). This research project is improving our understanding of metal speciation pertinent to metal-contaminated sites. Models currently used to characterize metal-contaminated sites have three principal shortcomings. First, toxic metal speciation in many instances is under kinetic control rather than thermodynamic control. Second, host solids often are reworked by precipitation/dissolution reactions such that toxic metal ions become physically inaccessible. Finally, soil organic matter constituents are difficult to characterize and hence difficult to properly consider in quantitative models. Experiments are examining the dissolution of Ni(OH)2(s) and the desorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) from FeOOH (goethite) and Fe(OH)3 (ferrihydrite) surfaces. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is being employed to monitor processes taking place in aqueous solutions, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is being used to assess surface structural changes. Several sets of experiments in the past year were devoted to the synthesis of Ni(OH)2(s) and FeOOH (goethite) particles. Additional experiments refined the analytical techniques (CE-based methods) for discerning the aqueous speciation of Ni(II) and Fe(III).

R828771C001: Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils (Phase II). This research project is addressing transport and fate issues for organic contaminants in the subsurface to provide input on exposure pathways from contaminated groundwater and soils. The research also involves reaction processes that are important in natural attenuation of contaminants. This project also contributes to risk management issues. Contaminated sites typically involve complex mixtures of contaminants, the fate of which is affected by both biochemical interactions that impact microbial attenuation and competitive adsorption on solid phases. Because sediment- or soil-bound contaminants are usually not bioavailable, successful prediction and assessment of fate and transport require a full accounting and integration of the sorption effects. Modeling has been conducted in order to better understand how sorption, mass transfer, biodegradation, and the presence of other compounds affect the fate of contaminants in sorbent-water batch systems. The context of this modeling work was the simultaneous (cometabolic) biodegradation of toluene and TCE in several hypothetical, yet realistic sorbent-water systems. The results show that the sensitivity to the different modeling approaches varies depending on which processes (sorption, mass transfer, or biodegradation) control the overall contaminant bioavailability. For example, the simulations are insensitive to the type of sorption model used in systems with low sorption strength and slow biodegradation rates. Conversely, the behavior of systems with rapid biodegradation will be strongly dependent on mass transfer effects, including possible impacts of competitive sorption.

“Bioavailability plots” were developed by graphing the apparent mass transfer rate against the apparent biodegradation rate. These plots show the process(es) limiting contaminant removal and serve as a practical guide to determining the process most affecting modeling results. The bioavailability plots also illustrate the time-dependency of mass transfer and biodegradation rates in complex systems. Macropore column studies were conducted to provide a better understanding of the mass transfer constraints of solute availability. The findings are showing that the apparent diffusion rate coefficient scales with velocity.

R828771C015: Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere. This research projects is addressing potential exposure pathways from airborne particles by linking the emissions from contaminated sites to regional air quality.

The goal of Part 1 of the project is to quantify the sources and cycling of hazardous materials in the urban environment, and specifically the exchange of contaminants between the land and the atmosphere. Parallel field and laboratory studies of trace metal, mercury, and organic contaminant speciation are underway. Ambient aerosol was collected during three intensive sampling campaigns in the spring, summer, and winter of 2002-2003 at the Baltimore PM2.5 Supersite. The bulk (hi-vol) samples were analyzed for a suite of organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), and selected hopanes using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The greatest PAH concentrations were found during the winter. Unlike PAHs, NPAHs have direct emission (primary) and photochemical (secondary) sources. The concentration ratio of PAHs to NPAHs was usually below 5, indicating that particulate phase NPAHs are predominantly from primary sources in the area. Diesel emissions are known to have significant quantities of NPAHs. The size distribution data suggest that local emissions are the dominant sources of organic particulate matter during the sampling campaigns. This illustrates the importance of primary emissions at this site, as these aerosol particles not only contain primary toxicants but also provide the sorption surface for secondary atmospheric toxicants.

The goal of Part 2 of the project is to examine sources and fate of contaminants in urban airborne particles and their potential bioavailability in precipitation and in nearby surface waters, such as the Chesapeake Bay. Theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate that the deposition fluxes of most airborne metals are dominated by large particles, which often contain only small fractions of the total contaminant mass. The experimental effort in this project encompasses three areas of interest: (1) availability of metals in course urban particles; (2) concentrations and sources of metals and Hg in the urban atmosphere; and (3) methods to concentrate fine and coarse urban aerosol particles. The latter permits improved measurements of concentrations for investigating atmospheric burdens and fate. The work in the past year focused on the development of the centripetal aerosol concentrator. The concentrator design is based on that of cyclones but uses a rotating central outlet pipe and porous wall. In the concentrator, the sample air is caused to rotate at high speeds by virtue of viscous coupling with the surface of the rotating central outlet pipe. Particles accelerate towards the porous outer wall where they are carried into the annulus between cylinders through a secondary outlet port with a small flow of air. It is expected that this centripetal aerosol concentrator will deliver an 80-fold increase in aerosol particle concentration in a 30-minute sampling interval at an inlet flow rate of 210 L/minute.

R828771C013: Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site. This research project is addressing transport and fate issues for inorganic (metal) contaminants in the subsurface to provide input on exposure pathways from contaminated groundwater and soils. The research involves reaction processes that are important in natural attenuation of contaminants, and it contributes to risk management issues.

Many industrial and urban sites with subsurface contamination are characterized by shallow aquifers that discharge to nearby surface water bodies. Preliminary observations at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund site suggest groundwater arsenic transport to the Cohas Brook is controlled by the formation of iron oxides in the sediments. Iron oxidizing bacteria are present in the sediments and may play a central role in generation of iron oxyhydroxide solids because abiotic iron oxidation is extremely slow given the pore water chemistry in the groundwater/surface water interface. The goal of this research project is to identify the seasonal cycle of arsenic sequestration and release between sediments and pore waters in the groundwater/surface water interface. Spatial heterogeneity of arsenic and iron concentrations in near-shore Cohas Brook sediments were characterized using three freeze cores. Two of the three cores showed sharp decreases in arsenic and iron concentrations with depth, while the third core exhibited nearly constant arsenic and iron concentrations with depth. In general, arsenic was strongly sorbed to the surfaces of amorphous iron oxides in the sediments. High numbers of iron oxidizing bacteria were detected in the shallow regions of the cores. The abundance of iron oxidizing bacteria declined by nearly two orders of magnitude at 15 cm below the ground surface where the iron concentration was only 10 percent of the value observed at shallower depths. A quantitative method to measure the cellular activity of iron oxidizing bacteria in sediments has been developed. Chemical characterization of solids from the top 10-cm of a core obtained from a location 2-m from the water line showed arsenic to be concentrated in regions of high iron, and not found in regions depleted of iron.

R828771C014: Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments. This research project is collecting information on the research needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3. The goals of this research project are to: (1) identify the research needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 through visits and interviews with EPA officials, State Department of Environment officials, and stakeholders within industry and community groups; and (2) prepare an assessment report on these research needs and rank their importance. A secondary objective of the analysis is to identify possible waste sites that could be used by the CHSUE for case studies.

Some of the research needs identified in EPA Region 1 include waste containment issues, characterization of Brownfields sites, and performance monitoring for natural attenuation of certain contaminated sites. Some of the research needs identified in EPA Regions 2 and 3 include oxygenates in water and human health effects associated with exposure to Superfund chemicals. One additional research need for EPA Region 3 is rapid characterization of Brownfields sites.

The project team sponsored a workshop in September 2005 with papers on pertinent research topics. The hazardous substances of most concern are mercury, trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated solvents, and radon in Region 1; lead, chromium, mercury, and benzene in Region 2; and lead, dioxin, and TCE in Region 3. These chemicals are among the top 20 most prevalent contaminants at Superfund sites. There is strong interest and concern about the fate of oxygenates in streams and the potential contamination of groundwater in both Regions 2 and 3. The presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is of special concern, being a constituent of most grades of gasoline.

Future Activities:

R828771C004: Measurements and Large Eddy Simulations of Plume Dispersion in an Urban Boundary Layer Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas. Future studies will examine how much detail in the model of the urban canopy must be considered when simulating the flow over an urban area to simulate urban dispersion.

R828771C012: Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II). Future experiments will address desorption and dissolution with the synthesized particles. An important goal is to monitor the extent of chelating agent adsorption throughout the duration of the experiments. Measurements of extent of adsorption at different (hydr)oxide loadings, Ni(II) concentrations, chelating agent concentrations, and pH will help provide details about governing surface chemical reactions. The influence of Ca(II) and organic matter on desorption and dissolution also will be evaluated.

R828771C001: Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils (Phase II). As the project draws to a close, the immediate activities will concentrate on completing the macropore column laboratory experiments and their associated modeling. Additional efforts will be devoted to presenting the work at conferences and preparing journal publications. Although beyond the scope of this project, additional research is needed to better elucidate co-contaminant effects on risk and remediation under realistically complex field conditions (e.g., aquifer heterogeneity, unknown site history, and unknown contaminant distributions).

R828771C015: Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere. Work will continue on the development of the centripetal aerosol concentrator.

R828771C013: Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site. In future work, additional seasonal monitoring will be conducted to quantify the rates of iron oxidation with whole cell extracts and the rate of iron oxide reduction under biogenic control. Together, these activities will indicate the conditions under which arsenic sequestration in sediments limits the transport of arsenic from groundwater to surface water. Future experiments will measure arsenic sorption kinetics and capacities of the Cohas Brook sediments. The rates of iron oxidation with whole cell extracts will be measured. These activities will indicate the conditions under which arsenic sequestration in sediments limits the transport of arsenic from groundwater to surface water at this, and other hydrogeologically similar sites in New England. Ultimately, the results will direct the future development of predictive models of abandoned landfill sites.

R828771C014: Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments. Work will continue on collecting information on the research needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3. In addition, an assessment report will be prepared on these research needs and their importance will be ranked.


Journal Articles: 20 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 108 publications 22 publications in selected types All 20 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Bou-Zeid E, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. Large-eddy simulation of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over heterogeneous surfaces: blending height and effective surface roughness. Water Resources Research 2004;40:W02505.
abstract available  
R828771C004 (2004)
R828771C004 (2005)
R828771C004 (Final)
  • Abstract: AGU Abstract
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  • Other: AGU PDF
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  • Journal Article Bou-Zeid E, Meneveau C, Parlange M. A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows. Physics of Fluids 2005;17:025105.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C004 (2005)
    R828771C004 (Final)
  • Abstract: AIP Abstract
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  • Other: AIP PDF
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  • Journal Article Carbonaro RF, Stone AT. Speciation of chromium(III) and cobalt(III) (Amino)carboxylate complexes using capillary electrophoresis. Analytical Chemistry. 2005;77(1):155-164. R828771C005 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article CHSUE assisted with preparation. Description of the Phase II HSRC grants. 2002 Centerpoint 2002;7(1). R828771 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Improved GC/MS methods for measuring hourly PAH and nitro-PAH concentrations in urban particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(35):6764-6779.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full-Text
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
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  • Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Measurement of aerosol PAH and Nitro-PAH concentrations in ambient urban air with hourly resolution. Atmospheric Environment. R828771C015 (2005)
    not available
    Journal Article Gan P, Yu R, Smets BF, MacKay AA. Sampling methods to determine the spatial gradients and flux of arsenic at a groundwater seepage zone. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2006;25(6):1487-1495.
    abstract available  
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C013 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Ball WP, Bouwer EJ. Modeling and interpreting bioavailability of organic contaminant mixtures in subsurface environments. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 2006;82(3-4):255-292.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Other: Science Direct PDF
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Bouwer EJ, Ball WP. The influence of biogeochemical conditions and level of model complexity when simulating cometabolic biodegradation in sorbent-water systems. Advances in Water Resources 2006;29(4):571-589.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct Full Text
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  • Abstract: Science Direct Abstract
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Ball WP, Bouwer EJ. Effects of initial solute distribution on contaminant availability, desorption modeling, and subsurface remediation. Journal of Environmental Quality 2007;36(5):1392-1402.
    abstract available  
    R828771C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: JEQ Full Text
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  • Journal Article Landis MS, Stevens RK, Schaedlich F, Prestbo EM. Development and characterization of an annular denuder methodology for the measurement of divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(13):3000-3009.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Other: Atmospheric-Research PDF
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  • Journal Article Laurier FJG, Mason RP, Whalin L, Kato S. Reactive gaseous mercury formation in the North Pacific Ocean's marine boundary layer: a potential role of halogen chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2003;108(D17):4529, doi:10.1029/2003JD003625.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Nguyen TH, Sabbah I, Ball WP. Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(13):3595-3603.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pancras JP, Ondov JM, Zeisler R. Multi-element electrothermal AAS determination of 11 marker elements in fine ambient aerosol slurry samples collected with SEAS-II. Analytica Chimica Acta 2005;538(1-2):303-312.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (2005)
    R828771C015 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full-Text
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  • Journal Article Park SS, Pancras JP, Ondov J, Poor N. A new pseudodeterministic multivariate receptor model for individual source apportionment using highly time-resolved ambient concentration measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2005;110(D7):D07S15, doi:10.1029/2004JD004664.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (2005)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Journal Article McGuire MM, Carlson DL, Vikesland PJ, Kohn T, Grenier AC, Langley LA, Roberts AL, Fairbrother DH. Applications of surface analysis in the environmental sciences: dehalogenation of chlorocarbons with zero-valent iron and iron-containing mineral surfaces. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2003;496(1-2):301-313.
    full text available
    R828771C006 (2003)
    R828164 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Grenier AC, McGuire MM, Fairbrother DH, Roberts AL. Treatment of vapor-phase organohalides with zero-valent iron and Ni/Fe reductants. Environmental Engineering Science. 2004;21(4):421-435. R828771C006 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Sabbah I, Ball WP, Young DF, Bouwer EJ. Misinterpretations in the modeling of contaminant desorption from environmental solids when equilibrium conditions are not fully understood. Environmental Engineering Science 2005;22(3):350-366.
    abstract available  
    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Liebert Abstract
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  • Other: Liebert PDF
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  • Journal Article Tseng Y-H, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(8):2653-2662.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C004 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Other: American Chemical Society PDF
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  • Journal Article Yu R, Gan P, MacKay AA, Zhang S, Smets BF. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2010;71(2):260-271.
    abstract available  
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C013 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    toxics, exposure, hazardous substances, assessment, cleanup, risk communication, Brownfields, airborne urban contaminants, contaminated waste sites, heavy metals, , Geographic Area, international cooperation, pollutants/toxics, RFA, waste, Brownfields, chemicals, environmental chemistry, environmental engineering, hazardous, hazardous waste, Mid-Atlantic, chromium, airborne urban contaminants, arsenic, assessing metal speciation, Brownfield sites, cadmium, chemical releases, contaminated waste sites, environmental hazards, hazardous waste characterization, hazardous waste disposal, hazardous waste management, hazardous waste treatment, heavy metals, mercury, risk assessment,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Geographic Area, Waste, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Environmental Chemistry, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Brownfields, Mid-Atlantic, Ecological Risk Assessment, Hazardous, hazardous waste disposal, hazardous waste management, hazardous waste treatment, brownfield sites, environmental hazards, contaminated waste sites, mercury, urban waste management, Chromium, risk assessment , assessing metal speciation, chemical releases, cadmium, hazardous waste characterization, arsenic, heavy metals

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.jhu.edu/hsrc Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2006
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828771C001 Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils: Phase II
    R828771C002 The Fate and Potential Bioavailability of Airborne Urban Contaminants
    R828771C003 Geochemistry, Biochemistry, and Surface/Groundwater Interactions for As, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd with Applications to Contaminated Waterfronts
    R828771C004 Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas
    R828771C005 Speciation of chromium in environmental media using capillary electrophoresis with multiple wavlength UV/visible detection
    R828771C006 Zero-Valent Metal Treatment of Halogenated Vapor-Phase Contaminants in SVE Offgas
    R828771C007 The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) Outreach Program
    R828771C008 New Jersey Institute of Technology Outreach Program for EPA Region II
    R828771C009 Urban Environmental Issues: Hartford Technology Transfer and Outreach
    R828771C010 University of Maryland Outreach Component
    R828771C011 Environmental Assessment and GIS System Development of Brownfield Sites in Baltimore
    R828771C012 Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II)
    R828771C013 Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site
    R828771C014 Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
    R828771C015 Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere