2004 Progress Report: Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE)

EPA Grant Number: R828771
Center: HSRC (2001) - Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
Center Director: Bouwer, Edward J.
Title: Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE)
Investigators: Bouwer, Edward J. , Alavi, Hedy
Institution: The Johns Hopkins University
EPA Project Officer: Klieforth, Barbara I
Project Period: October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2007
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004
Project Amount: $6,000,000
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (2001) Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Land and Waste Management

Objective:

The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) completed its third year of existence under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Hazardous Substances Research Centers (HSRC) program. The CHSUE is a cooperative activity between the Johns Hopkins University (JHU, lead institution), University of Maryland (UM), Morgan State University (MSU), University of Connecticut (UConn), and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) and covers EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3. About 80 percent of the U.S. population lives in metropolitan areas. These urban residents face a number of pressing environmental problems including exposure to toxic chemicals from contaminated sites, landfills, incinerators, abandoned industrial sites (Brownfields), industrial releases, lead, and pesticide use. In this context, EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 have identified “Urban Livability” as a strategic priority. Focusing on the upper mid-Atlantic to the Northeast, the mission of the CHSUE is twofold: (1) to promote a better understanding of physical, chemical, and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and managing risks associated with the use and disposal of hazardous substances in urban environments; and (2) to disseminate the results of the research and provide technical expertise to various stakeholders including community groups, municipal officials, regulators, academia, and industry.

Progress Summary:

Through a combination of laboratory and field-scale research, the projects within the CHSUE continue to address contaminants and sources that are known to be prevalent in urban environments. These include gas and particulate emissions of mercury, other toxic metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sites and hazardous waste incinerators; chromium, arsenic, nickel, zinc, and cadmium in waters and soils; and chlorinated solvents in waste-site gases, soils, sediments, and groundwaters. The progress of the CHSUE’s research program is described in this section. The CHSUE solicited new proposals in spring 2003, and a set of new research projects was initiated on October 1, 2003, and will span years 3 and 4 of the Center.

Second Set of Research Projects and Participants

Risks to humans from toxic materials in urban environments come from contaminated groundwater and airborne particles and from direct or indirect exposure to contaminated soils. Several of the second set of 2-year research projects within this Center are aimed at better quantifying the sources and cycling of toxicants and exposure pathways. Improvements in characterizing the sources and pathways will, in turn, make it possible to determine whether exposure levels have been or will be high enough to cause adverse health effects. Improved exposure assessment can be used to determine priorities for risk management and for determining appropriate cleanup levels for contaminated sites.

Once the risks of exposure from urban sites are quantified, risk management will be implemented to prevent or control the impact of toxic materials on human health and ecological systems. Risk management decisions generally consider the technical feasibility of treatment methods along with societal values and economics. Some of the research projects that address exposure pathways also provide information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation as a means to reduce risks at contaminated sites. One research project is reviewing the research needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 to aid the Center in developing future relevant research projects.

Participants in the Research Program

The interdisciplinary and multimedia nature of urban environmental problems demands a diverse array of scientific talent and facilities. The affiliation and expertise of each Principal Investigator for Year 3 of the research program are detailed below:

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Lead Institution). Faculty from the Departments of Geography and Environmental Engineering (DoGEE), Mechanical Engineering (ME), and Chemistry at JHU are participating in the current research projects:

  • Director: Edward Bouwer, DoGEE (environmental engineering, bioremediation, engineering microbiology)
  • Associate Director: Hedy Alavi, DoGEE (environmental engineering, hazardous waste and solid waste management)
  • William Ball, DoGEE (environmental engineering, contaminant fate and transport)
  • Howard Fairbrother, Chemistry (surface spectroscopy and catalysis, corrosion proc.)
  • Charles Meneveau, ME (turbulence modeling, large-eddy simulation)
  • Charles O’Melia, DoGEE (environmental engineering, colloid chemistry)
  • Marc Parlange, DoGEE (environmental fluid mechanics)
  • Alan Stone, DoGEE (environmental inorganic chemistry)

University of Maryland. Faculty from the Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL, Solomons, Maryland) and the Department of Chemistry (College Park, Maryland) at UM are participating in the current research projects:

  • Joel Baker, CBL (transport and fate of organic compounds in environmental media)
  • Robert Mason, CBL (transport and fate of mercury in environmental media)
  • John Ondov, Chemistry (movement and chemistry of aerosol particles)

Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland. The following three faculty from the School of Engineering at MSU are participating in the current research projects:

  • Guangming Chen, Industrial Engineering (risk assessment, experimental design and statistics)
  • G.B. Oguntimein, Civil Engineering (chemical engineering, hazardous waste management, bioremediation)
  • Sedley Williams, Civil Engineering (soil chemistry, water quality analysis, environmental assessment, GIS)

University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut. Faculty from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering at UConn are participating in the current research projects:

  • Allison MacKay, Environmental Engineering (environmental organic chemistry, contaminant hydrology)
  • Barth Smets, Environmental Engineering (contaminant biotransformations, microbial ecology)

Current Research Projects

Six research projects were funded for Years 3 and 4 of the Center. The project title, list of collaborators, and brief summary of the goals and results for the past year of effort for the new research projects are given below. For more details, see each project’s individual Annual Report Summary.

R828771C005 Speciation of Chromium in Environmental Media Using Capillary Electrophoresis With Multiple Wavelength UV/Visible Detection, Alan Stone (JHU) and Charles O’Melia (JHU). This project is improving the method used for measuring the speciation of chromium so that we can more accurately assess its toxicity in all environmental media. The improved chromium speciation procedure will be used in subsequent chromium research within the Center.

It is widely accepted that the oxidation state of chromium (Cr) is important for appraising extents of contamination, predicting future contaminant migration behavior, and devising mitigation schemes. The diphenylcarbazide test for distinguishing Cr(VI) from Cr(III) is most common but is subject to interference problems. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method is being developed to identify and quantify Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species. CE is a new analytical method that offers more reliable information than existing methods and allows entirely new species to be discerned. Capillary electrophoresis allows analytical separation based upon differences in the charge and hydrodynamic radii of analyte complexes. The focus of this project over the past year has been on ways in which natural organic matter (NOM) affects Cr speciation, and the extent to which this speciation can be discerned by CE. Solutions prepared from freeze-dried Great Dismal Swamp NOM were spiked with chromate anion (CrO4-2) to examine formation of complexes. The CE peak corresponding to CrO4-2 declines during the first 24 hours of contact time and is replaced gradually by three well-defined peaks. Over a period of several days, these peaks also decay. These results suggest some interesting chemistry and the possibility that Cr(VI) is being reduced to Cr(III). These reactions will be explored in more detail. Experiments also have been conducted with salicylic acid and structurally related compounds as surrogates of low-molecular-weight NOM. The CE system is able to detect several 1:1 complexes. Future work will focus on identifying the new Cr species created in the chromate-plus-NOM reaction.

R829771C004 Measurements and Large Eddy Simulations of Plume Dispersion in Urban Boundary Layer, Marc Parlange (JHU) and Charles Meneveau (JHU). This project is addressing movement of airborne particles in urban environments to improve our capability of quantifying exposure pathways.

A computational simulation tool is being developed to address potential exposure pathways in urban environments from airborne particles. Computer simulations of air movement and pollutant transport in urban environments are especially challenging because of the complex ground topology typically found in cities. A building cluster consisting of a group of buildings of roughly comparable size is expected to provide the most complicated flow patterns because the flow interference among the buildings needs to be considered. The large eddy simulation code was extended during the past year to: (1) perform several validation tests for turbulent flow over a cluster of buildings with logarithmic-type boundary condition; (2) simulate turbulent flow in Baltimore, Maryland; and (3) investigate the pollutant transport and dispersion within a city. A computational domain consisting of an array of nine cubes with periodic boundary horizontally was used to simulate the flow over a building cluster. The predicted mean streamwise velocity agrees reasonably well with the experimental results. The air flow around a cluster of skyscrapers in Baltimore, Maryland, was used to investigate the pollutant transport and turbulent mixing within the city. The pollutants are transported downstream and detoured as a result of the building structures. Strong turbulent mixing is found, and the plume is trapped within the building cluster. The pollutants accumulate locally among the buildings. In addition, the velocity field becomes very chaotic behind the building cluster. Future studies will examine possible pollutant sources from different locations and test the predictions of flow within the city. The effects of various weather conditions and variable winds also will be investigated.

R828771C012 Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II), Alan Stone (JHU). This project is improving our understanding of metal speciation pertinent to metal-contaminated sites.

Models currently used to characterize metal-contaminated sites have three principal shortcomings. First, toxic metal speciation in many instances is under kinetic control rather than thermodynamic control. Second, host solids often are reworked by precipitation/dissolution reactions such that toxic metal ions become physically inaccessible. Finally, soil organic matter constituents are difficult to characterize and hence difficult to properly consider in quantitative models. Experiments are examining the dissolution of NiO(s) and the desorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) from FeO(OH) (goethite) and Fe(OH)3 (amorphous) surfaces. CE is being employed to monitor processes taking place in aqueous solutions, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy is being used to assess surface structural changes. Kinetic experiments have been conducted by allowing Ni(II) 24 hours of contact with FeO(OH) and then adding a chelating agent (HEDTA) that solubilizes Ni(II) via ligand-assisted desorption and Fe(III) via ligand-assisted dissolution. “Metal ion exchange” is observed as Fe(III) displaces Ni(II) within the HEDTA complex. Owing to the low solubility of unchelated Fe(III) species, this displacement reaction likely takes place at the FeO(OH)-water interface. Future experiments will include natural chelating agents such as deoxymugineic acid, a siderophore released by the growing roots of some grass species. Metal-mobilizing redox processes are also important. After the Ni(II) plus FeO(OH) contact period, suspensions will be spiked with Fe(II) or an organic reductant. The amount of Ni(II) desorption will be monitored through competition for available surface sites.

R828771C001 Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils: Phase II, William Ball (JHU), Edward Bouwer (JHU), and Allison MacKay (UConn). This project is addressing transport and fate issues for organic contaminants in the subsurface to provide input on exposure pathways from contaminated groundwaters and soils. The research also involves reaction processes that are important in natural attenuation of contaminants. This project also contributes to risk management issues.

Contaminated sites typically involve complex mixtures of contaminants, the fates of which are affected both by biochemical interactions that impact microbial attenuation and competitive adsorption on solid phases. Because sediment- or soil-bound contaminants are usually not bioavailable, successful prediction and assessment of fate and transport require a full accounting and integration of the sorption effects. Modeling has been conducted to better understand how sorption, mass transfer, biodegradation, and the presence of other compounds affect the fate of contaminants in sorbent-water batch systems. Different sorption, mass transfer, and biodegradation limitations on bioavailability are being investigated to determine the sensitivity of model predictions with respect to the presence of co-contaminants. The study used a suite of 18 models that ranged from computationally simple approaches that invoked equilibrium, linear sorption, and first-order biodegradation to much more sophisticated and highly parameterized models that considered nonlinear, multidomain sorption and mass transfer, Monod biodegradation kinetics, and co-contaminant effects. The results show that the sensitivity to the different modeling approaches varies depending on which processes (sorption, mass transfer, or biodegradation) control the overall contaminant bioavailability. For example, the simulations are insensitive to the type of sorption model used in systems with low sorption strength and slow biodegradation rates. Conversely, the behavior of systems with rapid biodegradation will be strongly dependent on mass transfer effects, including possible impacts of competitive sorption. Future work will involve collection of harbor sediments and Superfund site soils and experiments to investigate more fully the potential importance of sorption nonlinearity and sorption competition. The modeling efforts will be extended to systems with one-dimensional advective flow.

R828771C015 Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere, Robert Mason (UM), Joel Baker (UM), and John Ondov (UM). This project is addressing potential exposure pathways from airborne particles by linking the emissions from contaminated sites to regional air quality.

Part 1. The Source and Fate of Atmospheric Mercury and Other Pollutants: The Importance of Urban Sources, Robert Mason (UM), Joel E. Baker (UM), Fabian Laurier (UM), and Bernard Crimmins (UM). The goal of this subproject is to estimate the fate and bioavailability of atmospherically transported chemical contaminants in the urban environment. Parallel field and laboratory studies of trace metal, Hg, and organic contaminant speciation are underway. Rain, snow, and air samples are collected and analyzed for Hg species. Reactive gaseous Hg (RGHg) is detected in most samples. The overall elevated concentrations of oxidants in urban air do not necessarily result in more RGHg. There is evidence for rapid scavenging of RGHg by precipitation. During extended rainfall events, RGHg concentrations fall to zero. The scavenging of RGHg is an important source of Hg in coastal rain.

Part 2. The Source and Fate of Atmospheric Metals: The Importance of Urban Sources, John M. Ondov (UM) and Patrick Pancras (UM). The goal of this subproject is to examine sources and fate of contaminants in urban airborne particles and their potential bioavailability in precipitation and in nearby surface waters such as the Chesapeake Bay. Theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate that the deposition fluxes of most airborne metals are dominated by large particles, which often contain only small fractions of the total contaminant mass. To investigate the fate of metals in large aerosol particles, atmospheric coarse particles (diameters > 2.5 μm) were collected for several months in a 1 meter aluminum cyclone located in Clifton Park, about 2 km from downtown Baltimore. Results suggest that large fractions of most of the 20 elements analyzed were available in rain (pH 4.2) and harbor water. An intensive air sampling campaign has provided samples for metals analyses to reveal the atmospheric burdens and sources of various metals including Al, As, Se, Cu, Cr, Cd, Mn, Fe, Se, Pb, and Zn. These metals are known either to be toxic or useful as markers of high-temperature combustion sources and urban dust to complement Hg and organic measurements made by our colleagues. The samples exhibited elevated concentrations of Cd, Zn, Sb, and Pb (i.e., markers of municipal incinerator particle emissions) between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. Se and V peaks also are evident. The relative abundances of these elements and wind directions suggest that these samples were influenced by the Baltimore municipal incinerator (station angle of 250º) and Gould Street power plant.

R82771C013 Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site, Allison MacKay (UConn), Barth Smets (UConn), and Howard Fairbrother (JHU). This project is addressing transport and fate issues for inorganic (metal) contaminants in the subsurface to provide input on exposure pathways from contaminated groundwaters and soils. The research also involves reaction processes that are important in natural attenuation of contaminants. This project also contributes to risk management issues.

Many industrial and urban sites with subsurface contamination are characterized by shallow aquifers that discharge to nearby surface water bodies. Preliminary observations at the Auburn Road Landfill Superfund site suggest that groundwater arsenic transport to the Cohas Brook is controlled by the formation of iron oxides in the sediments. Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present in the sediments and may play a central role in the generation of iron oxyhydroxide solids because abiotic iron oxidation is extremely slow given the pore water chemistry in the ground water/surface water interface. The goal of this research project is to identify the seasonal cycle of arsenic sequestration and release between sediments and pore waters in the ground water/surface water interface. Spatial heterogeneity of arsenic and iron concentrations in near-shore Cohas Brook sediments were characterized using three freeze cores. Two of the three cores showed sharp decreases in arsenic and iron concentrations with depth, whereas the third core exhibited nearly constant arsenic and iron concentrations with depth. High numbers of iron-oxidizing bacteria were detected in the shallow regions of the cores. The abundance of iron-oxidizing bacteria declined by nearly two orders of magnitude at 15 cm below the ground surface where the iron concentration was only 10 percent of the value observed at shallower depths. Using 16 s rRNA sequencing, most of the iron-oxidizing bacteria were closely related to Pseudomonas putida, which is able to grow under microaerophilic conditions. The remaining bacteria were closely related to iron-depositing sheathed bacteria. In future work, additional seasonal monitoring will be conducted to quantify the rates of iron oxidation with whole-cell extracts and the rate of iron oxide reduction under biogenic control. Together, these activities will indicate the conditions under which arsenic sequestration in sediments limits the transport of arsenic from ground water to surface water.

R828711C014 Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments, Guangming Chen (MSU), Gbekeloluwa Oguntimein (MSU), and Sedley Williams (MSU). The goals of this research project are to: (1) identify the research needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 through visits and interviews with EPA officials, State Department of Environment officials, and stakeholders within industry and community groups; and (2) prepare an assessment report on these research needs and rank their importance. A secondary objective of the analysis is to identify possible waste sites that could be used by the CHSUE for case studies. Some of the research needs identified in EPA Region 1 include waste containment issues, characterization of Brownfields sites, and performance monitoring for natural attenuation of certain contaminated sites. Some of the research needs identified in EPA Regions 2 and 3 include oxygenates in water and human health effects associated with exposure to Superfund chemicals. One additional research need for EPA Region 3 is a rapid characterization of Brownfields sites. In future efforts, a survey form will be mailed to regional EPA officials and officials from state environment departments. A 1-day workshop is planned to promote the dialogue between EPA officials and the CHSUE researchers.

Advisory Committees

The CHSUE benefits from guidance supplied by two external advisory committees. Our Science Advisory Committee (SAC) is comprised of 16 representatives from EPA, industry, government offices and laboratories, and academia (see Table 1).

Table 1. Members of the Science Advisory Committee

Members of the Science Advisory Committee

Professor James Johnson serves as Chair of the SAC. He is assisted by professor Paul Roberts. The purpose of the SAC is to assist the CHSUE in evaluating the merit, value, and contribution of research projects and the relevance and importance of individual organizational elements to accomplishing the overall goals of the Center. The CHSUE has held two meetings of the SAC. The first SAC meeting was held on October 21-22, 2002, with the purpose of learning about the research program and providing feedback on specific research projects. The second SAC meeting was held on June 16, 2003, with the purpose of reviewing proposals and selecting new research projects for the CHSUE. At both of these meetings, the SAC provided some general advice on the mission and conduct of the CHSUE. A third meeting of the SAC will take place on October 18-19, 2004, with the purpose of reviewing the research projects selected for Years 3 and 4.

Our Outreach Advisory Committee (OAC) is comprised of 12 representatives from EPA, other government offices, industry, and the community (see Table 2). Mr. Gary Letteron of Washington Village/Pigtown Neighborhood Planning Center (WPNPC) in Baltimore; Mr. Henri Thompson, Executive Director of the Park Reist Corridor Coalition in Baltimore; and Ms. Nancy Zak, President of the Ironbound Community Corporation joined the OAC. Former Maryland State Delegate Mary Rosso resigned from the committee to prevent any potential conflict of interest because she is now working part time with UM on Region 3 outreach activities. The purpose of the OAC is to assist the CHSUE in the development, implementation, and evaluation of education, knowledge transfer, and outreach activities and to identify outreach funding opportunities.

The first OAC meeting was held on November 7, 2002, at JHU. The second OAC meeting was held on November 14, 2003, at the NJIT. A followup conference call was held on August 3, 2004. The next OAC meeting will take place on November 19, 2004, at UConn.

Table 2. Members of the Outreach Advisory Committee

Members of the Outreach Advisory Committee

Other Activities

In addition to the research and outreach programs, the CHSUE participated in several other noteworthy activities in the past year.

Internal Research Program Workshop. The CHSUE sponsored an internal workshop on our research program on January 5, 2004, at JHU. The main objective of the workshop was to aid in knowledge transfer within the research program. The principal investigators for each of the seven research projects made presentations on their progress and future plans. This workshop allowed the principal investigators to: (1) share research progress through presentations to facilitate integration of the information in future work; (2) discuss future research directions; (3) discuss the plans for the upcoming five Centers meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada; and (4) discuss plans for the next SAC meeting in October 2004. The titles and speakers of the presentations for this 1-day workshop are listed below:

  • Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere (Joel Baker, Rob Mason, Bernie Crimmins, and Taeko Minegishi; UM)
  • Emission Rates of Pollutants from Stationary Sources Using Highly Time-Resolved Ambient Measurements and a New Pseudo-Deterministic Hybrid Receptor Model (John Ondov; UM)
  • Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas (Marc Parlange, Charles Meneveau, and Elie Bou-Zeid; JHU)
  • Biogeochemical Processes at the GSI: Biochemical Iron Oxidation and As Speciation (Barth Smets, Allison MacKay, Ping Gan, and Ran Yu; UConn)
  • Sorption and Mass Transfer Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities in Urban Settings (William Ball and Ed Bouwer; JHU)
  • Chromium and Nickel Speciation in the Presence of Natural Organic Compounds (Alan Stone; JHU)
  • Zero-Valent Metal Treatment of Halogenated Vapor-Phase Contaminants in SVE Offgas (Lynn Roberts and Howard Fairbrother; JHU)
  • Proposal to Compile Research Needs in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 (G. Chen, G. Oguntimein, and Sedley Williams; MSU)

Technical Outreach Services for Communities/Technical Assistance to Brownfields/EPA (TOSC/TAB/EPA) Conference in 2004 (St. Louis). In March, 2004, Center staff and members of OAC participated in the national TOSC/TAB meeting in St. Louis. Mr. Larry Charles, the Co-chair of the committee, presented the topic of working with communities on the TOSC/TAB community selection process. He led an open discussion on this issue and talked about the Center’s experience in working with OAC as well. Other staff members that attended the national TOSC/TAB meeting included Barbara Sattler, Chris Perkins, Amine Dahmani, Ralph Lightner, Fred Ellerbusch, Kevin Hood, and Hedy Alavi.

Other Meetings and Seminars. EPA did not host an annual director’s meeting during Year 3 of the HSRC program. The next annual director’s meeting will take place in early November 2004 in Las Vegas in conjunction with the U.S. EPA HSRC/National Exposure Research Laboratory Workshop on Superfund Exposure Research. The CHSUE sponsored technical seminars at JHU during the past year (see Table 3).

Table 3. Technical Seminars at JHU

Technical Seminars at JHU

Future Activities:

The individual subproject activities begun October 1, 2003 will continue. The SAC will meet to review the research projects, and the OAC will meet to assist the CHSUE in outreach activities. In addition, Center investigators will participate in EPA’s annual Director’s meeting.

Publications/Presentations: See the list of publications/presentations included in the individual 2004 Annual Reports for R828771C001 to R828771C015.


Journal Articles: 20 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 108 publications 22 publications in selected types All 20 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Bou-Zeid E, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. Large-eddy simulation of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over heterogeneous surfaces: blending height and effective surface roughness. Water Resources Research 2004;40:W02505.
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R828771C004 (2004)
R828771C004 (2005)
R828771C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bou-Zeid E, Meneveau C, Parlange M. A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows. Physics of Fluids 2005;17:025105.
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    R828771C004 (2005)
    R828771C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Carbonaro RF, Stone AT. Speciation of chromium(III) and cobalt(III) (Amino)carboxylate complexes using capillary electrophoresis. Analytical Chemistry. 2005;77(1):155-164. R828771C005 (2004)
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    Journal Article CHSUE assisted with preparation. Description of the Phase II HSRC grants. 2002 Centerpoint 2002;7(1). R828771 (2002)
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    Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Improved GC/MS methods for measuring hourly PAH and nitro-PAH concentrations in urban particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(35):6764-6779.
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    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Measurement of aerosol PAH and Nitro-PAH concentrations in ambient urban air with hourly resolution. Atmospheric Environment. R828771C015 (2005)
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    Journal Article Gan P, Yu R, Smets BF, MacKay AA. Sampling methods to determine the spatial gradients and flux of arsenic at a groundwater seepage zone. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2006;25(6):1487-1495.
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    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C013 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Ball WP, Bouwer EJ. Modeling and interpreting bioavailability of organic contaminant mixtures in subsurface environments. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 2006;82(3-4):255-292.
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Bouwer EJ, Ball WP. The influence of biogeochemical conditions and level of model complexity when simulating cometabolic biodegradation in sorbent-water systems. Advances in Water Resources 2006;29(4):571-589.
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    R828771C001 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Ball WP, Bouwer EJ. Effects of initial solute distribution on contaminant availability, desorption modeling, and subsurface remediation. Journal of Environmental Quality 2007;36(5):1392-1402.
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    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Landis MS, Stevens RK, Schaedlich F, Prestbo EM. Development and characterization of an annular denuder methodology for the measurement of divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(13):3000-3009.
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  • Journal Article Laurier FJG, Mason RP, Whalin L, Kato S. Reactive gaseous mercury formation in the North Pacific Ocean's marine boundary layer: a potential role of halogen chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2003;108(D17):4529, doi:10.1029/2003JD003625.
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  • Journal Article Nguyen TH, Sabbah I, Ball WP. Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(13):3595-3603.
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  • Journal Article Pancras JP, Ondov JM, Zeisler R. Multi-element electrothermal AAS determination of 11 marker elements in fine ambient aerosol slurry samples collected with SEAS-II. Analytica Chimica Acta 2005;538(1-2):303-312.
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    R828771 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Park SS, Pancras JP, Ondov J, Poor N. A new pseudodeterministic multivariate receptor model for individual source apportionment using highly time-resolved ambient concentration measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2005;110(D7):D07S15, doi:10.1029/2004JD004664.
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  • Journal Article McGuire MM, Carlson DL, Vikesland PJ, Kohn T, Grenier AC, Langley LA, Roberts AL, Fairbrother DH. Applications of surface analysis in the environmental sciences: dehalogenation of chlorocarbons with zero-valent iron and iron-containing mineral surfaces. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2003;496(1-2):301-313.
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    R828771C006 (2003)
    R828164 (Final)
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    Journal Article Grenier AC, McGuire MM, Fairbrother DH, Roberts AL. Treatment of vapor-phase organohalides with zero-valent iron and Ni/Fe reductants. Environmental Engineering Science. 2004;21(4):421-435. R828771C006 (2003)
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    Journal Article Sabbah I, Ball WP, Young DF, Bouwer EJ. Misinterpretations in the modeling of contaminant desorption from environmental solids when equilibrium conditions are not fully understood. Environmental Engineering Science 2005;22(3):350-366.
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    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tseng Y-H, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(8):2653-2662.
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    R828771C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Yu R, Gan P, MacKay AA, Zhang S, Smets BF. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2010;71(2):260-271.
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    toxics, exposure, hazardous substances, assessment, cleanup, risk communication, Brownfields, airborne urban contaminants, contaminated waste sites, heavy metals,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Geographic Area, Waste, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Environmental Chemistry, Chemicals, Brownfields, Hazardous Waste, Mid-Atlantic, Ecological Risk Assessment, Hazardous, hazardous waste disposal, hazardous waste management, hazardous waste treatment, brownfield sites, environmental hazards, contaminated waste sites, mercury, urban waste management, Chromium, risk assessment , assessing metal speciation, chemical releases, cadmium, hazardous waste characterization, arsenic, heavy metals

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.jhu.edu/hsrc Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828771C001 Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils: Phase II
    R828771C002 The Fate and Potential Bioavailability of Airborne Urban Contaminants
    R828771C003 Geochemistry, Biochemistry, and Surface/Groundwater Interactions for As, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd with Applications to Contaminated Waterfronts
    R828771C004 Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas
    R828771C005 Speciation of chromium in environmental media using capillary electrophoresis with multiple wavlength UV/visible detection
    R828771C006 Zero-Valent Metal Treatment of Halogenated Vapor-Phase Contaminants in SVE Offgas
    R828771C007 The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) Outreach Program
    R828771C008 New Jersey Institute of Technology Outreach Program for EPA Region II
    R828771C009 Urban Environmental Issues: Hartford Technology Transfer and Outreach
    R828771C010 University of Maryland Outreach Component
    R828771C011 Environmental Assessment and GIS System Development of Brownfield Sites in Baltimore
    R828771C012 Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II)
    R828771C013 Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site
    R828771C014 Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
    R828771C015 Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere