2003 Progress Report: Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE)

EPA Grant Number: R828771
Center: HSRC (2001) - Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
Center Director: Bouwer, Edward J.
Title: Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE)
Investigators: Bouwer, Edward J. , Alavi, Hedy
Institution: The Johns Hopkins University
EPA Project Officer: Klieforth, Barbara I
Project Period: October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2007
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003
Project Amount: $6,000,000
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (2001) Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Land and Waste Management

Objective:

The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) completed its second year of existence under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) program (October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003). The CHSUE is a cooperative activity between Johns Hopkins University (JHU) (lead institution), University of Maryland (UM), Morgan State University (MSU), University of Connecticut (UConn), and New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) and covers EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 (the upper Mid-Atlantic to the Northeast). About 80 percent of the U.S. population lives in metropolitan areas. These urban residents face a number of pressing environmental problems, including exposure to toxic chemicals from contaminated sites, landfills, incinerators, abandoned industrial sites (brownfields), industrial releases, lead, and pesticide use. In this context, EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3 have identified "Urban Livability" as a strategic priority. The objectives of the CHSUE are to: (1) promote a better understanding of physical, chemical, and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and managing risks associated with the use and disposal of hazardous substances in urban environments; and (2) disseminate the results of the research and provide technical expertise to various stakeholders, including community groups, municipal officials, regulators, academia, and industry.

Progress Summary:

Through a combination of laboratory- and field-scale research, the projects for the first 2 years of the CHSUE are addressing contaminants and sources that are known to be prevalent in urban environments. These include gas and particulate emissions of mercury, other toxic metals, and organic compounds from contaminated sites and hazardous waste incinerators; chromium, arsenic, nickel, zinc, and cadmium in waters and soils; and chlorinated solvents in waste site gases, soils, sediments, and groundwaters. The projects of the CHSUE's research program are briefly described in this section (see the individual annual reports for each project for more detail). The initial research projects had a start date of October 1, 2001, and an end date of September 30, 2003. The CHSUE solicited new proposals in the spring of 2003, and a set of new research projects will be initiated on October 1, 2003.

Initial 2-Year Research Projects and Participants

Risks to humans from toxic materials in urban environments come from contaminated groundwater and airborne particles, and from direct or indirect exposure to contaminated soils. Several of the initial 2-year research projects within this Center are aimed at better quantifying the sources and cycling of toxicants and exposure pathways. Improvements in characterizing the sources and pathways will, in turn, make it possible to determine whether exposure levels have been or will be high enough to cause adverse health effects. Improved exposure assessment can be used to determine priorities for risk management and for determining appropriate cleanup levels for contaminated sites.

Once the risks of exposure from urban sites are quantified, risk management will be implemented to prevent or control the impact of toxic materials on human health and ecological systems. Risk management decisions generally consider the technical feasibility of treatment methods along with societal values and economics. Some of the research projects that address exposure pathways also provide information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation as a means to reduce risks at contaminated sites. One research project is developing an innovative treatment method for halogenated solvents in vapor waste streams.

Participants in the Research Program. The interdisciplinary and multimedia nature of urban environmental problems demands a diverse array of scientific talent and facilities. The affiliation and expertise of the Principal Investigators (PIs) for the initial research program are detailed below:

JHU, Baltimore, Maryland (Lead Institution). Faculty from the Departments of Geography and Environmental Engineering (DoGEE), Mechanical Engineering (ME), and Chemistry at JHU are participating in the initial research projects:

Director: Edward Bouwer (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, bioremediation, and engineering microbiology)
Associate Director: Hedy Alavi (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, hazardous waste, and solid waste management)
William Ball (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, contaminant fate and transport)
Howard Fairbrother (Chemistry) (surface spectroscopy and catalysis, and corrosion process)
Charles Meneveau (ME) (turbulence modeling, large-eddy simulation)
Charles O'Melia (DoGEE) (environmental engineering, colloid chemistry)
Marc Parlange (DoGEE) (environmental fluid mechanics)
A. Lynn Roberts (DoGEE) (environmental chemistry, zero-valent metals/contaminant reactions)
Alan Stone (DoGEE) (environmental inorganic chemistry)

UM. Faculty from the Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL) (Solomons, MD) and the Department of Chemistry (College Park, MD) at UM are participating in the initial research projects:

Joel Baker (CBL) (transport and fate of organic compounds in environmental media)
Robert Mason (CBL) (transport and fate of mercury in environmental media)
John Ondov (Chemistry) (movement and chemistry of aerosol particles)

MSU, Baltimore, Maryland. The following three faculty from the School of Engineering at MSU are participating in an initial research project:

Guangming Chen (Industrial) (risk assessment, experimental design and statistics)
G.B. Oguntimein (Civil) (chemical engineering, hazardous waste management, bioremediation)
Sedley Williams (Civil) (soil chemistry, water quality analysis, environmental assessment, geographic information systems [GIS])

UConn, Storrs, Connecticut. Faculty from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Department of Chemical Engineering at UConn are participating in the initial research projects:

Joe Helble (Chemical Engineering) (air pollutants from combustion processes)
Allison MacKay (Environmental Engineering) (environmental organic chemistry, contaminant hydrology)
Barth Smets (Environmental Engineering) (contaminant biotransformations, microbial ecology)

Initial Research Projects. Seven research projects completed Year 2 of the research projects within the CHSUE. The title, list of collaborators, and a brief summary of the objectives and results for each project are given below. For more details, see each project's individual Annual Report Summary.

Project 1: The Fate and Potential Bioavailability of Airborne Urban Contaminants (PIs: Robert Mason [UM], Joel Baker [UM], and John Ondov [UM]). The objective of this project is to improve our knowledge of chemical properties of atmospheric particles. This effort is evaluating the importance of coarse particles entrained to the atmosphere from hazardous waste and brownfields sites as a source of contaminants to surrounding waters, and to humans via inhalation. This project is quantifying the sources and cycling of airborne contaminants to better characterize sources, pathways, and bioavailability of these contaminants. Particles/aerosols are collected using an ultrahigh volume sampler (coupled to the Supersite program). The particles contain elevated concentrations of Cd, Zn, Sb, and Pb, with occasional peaks of Se and V. The relative abundances of these elements and wind directions suggest that these samples were influenced by the Baltimore municipal incinerator and Gould Street power plant. The particles/aerosols currently are being analyzed for Hg to estimate Hg emissions from these sources. The analytical method distinguishes elemental Hg (Hg0) from reactive gaseous mercury (RGHg). The homologue distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the collected particles will be used to estimate the size-distribution of diesel-derived soot and to further resolve primary and secondary sources of the various nitro-PAHs congeners in the Baltimore, MD, atmosphere.

Project 2: Measurements and Large Eddy Simulations of Plume Dispersion in an Urban Boundary Layer (PIs: Marc Parlange [JHU], Charles Meneveau [JHU], Joseph Helble [UConn], and John Ondov [UM]). The objective of this project is to determine how spatial variability of surface heat fluxes and topography, land-water contrasts, drainage flows at night, and weather patterns influence atmospheric particle transport. A combination of measurements and models is being used to describe the transport of aerosols in an urban setting. Regional-scale atmospheric turbulence is modeled by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES modeling results for airflow around a representative building shape confirm that physically realistic flow patterns are obtained. The LES has permitted realistic high-resolution simulations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) flow over heterogeneous surfaces. A parameterization for heterogeneous surfaces has been formulated to allow transport models with course resolutions to correctly parameterize the effect of subgrid scale variations in surface roughness. The capabilities of the JHU lidar have been improved so that the features of the LES simulations (e.g., ABL entrainment) can be assessed, along with measurement of aerosols transport patterns. Lidar aerosol profiles were measured during the Canadian forest fire event of July 7, 2002. These data confirm that the JHU lidar can be used to measure the transport patterns of aerosols, and help validate the LES simulations. Future efforts will test the predictions of flow around building shapes with available data, and generalize to the case of several buildings to approach the level of complexity typically found in urban environments. The field data collected at the eastern Baltimore site also will be analyzed to identify Baltimore City and long distance sources of aerosols and their movement from point sensors and lidar measurements. Parallel work at UConn is investigating particle distribution functions and the particle-to-particle variations within that distribution, which are important for determining potential health effects of urban aerosols. Ambient particles were collected using a Berner type low-pressure impactor. The log normal probability density functions of fractal dimension were generated. The data analysis will be completed in the coming year.

Projects 3 and 4 are addressing transport and fate issues for metal and organic contaminants in the subsurface to provide input on exposure pathways from contaminated groundwaters and soils. The research also involves reaction processes that are important in natural attenuation of contaminants. Therefore, these projects also contribute to risk management issues.

Project 3: Geochemistry, Biochemistry, and Surface/Groundwater Interactions for As, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd With Applications to Contaminated Waterfronts (PIs: Allison MacKay [UConn] and Barth Smets [Uconn]). Many industrial and urban sites with subsurface contamination are characterized by shallow aquifers that discharge to nearby surface water bodies. The objectives of this research project are to identify and assess the relative importance of the complex, and potentially antagonistic, microbial, and chemical processes that govern the retardation and migration of metals, specifically Cd, Zn, Ni, As, and Cr, from a reduced aquifer zone through the groundwater/surface water interface (GSI) into an adjacent surface water body. Field studies are being conducted at the former Auburn Road Landfill in Londonderry, NH. Pools of arsenic that would be most easily released back to the pore waters for discharge to a brook are located in the shallowest sediments. The field measurements have linked the sequestration of arsenic in the GSI to iron oxide formation in the Cohas Brook sediments. Laboratory studies with Cohas Brook sediments reveal that iron oxidation is observed when cell extracts from core solids were introduced into special microcosms with low, diffusion-limited concentrations of oxygen and ferrous iron. The estimated numbers of iron-oxidizing bacteria per gram of soil decreased with depth in Cohas Brook sediments, and were most abundant in sediments with high iron oxide contents. Future efforts will determine the key chemical and biological processes that control arsenic transport across the GSI using high resolution patterns of pore water chemistry and solid precipitates observed at Cohas Brook.

Project 4: Co-contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils (PIs: William Ball [JHU] and Edward Bouwer [JHU]). This project focuses on organic contaminant mixtures, with an emphasis on improved approaches for modeling the combined effects of both sorption and biodegradation. Modeling has been conducted to better understand the role of nonlinear and nonequilibrium adsorption on long-term desorption and biodegradation. Good fits of short-term rate data were possible in all model cases, but models based on erroneous isotherms (as based on uptake experiments characterized by premature termination or insufficient range of concentration) caused severe errors in the prediction of long-term desorptive mass fluxes and rates of biodegradation. Results also illustrated how short-term sorption experiments can seem to be at equilibrium, yet lead to adsorption/desorption results that would be misinterpreted as "hysteretic," despite the intrinsic reversibility of the system. Some initial modeling also was conducted to illustrate how the desorptive fluxes could be integrated with fluid-phase biodegradation rates. Future modeling efforts will apply numerical models to evaluate the sensitivity of overall degradation rates to the presence of co-contaminants, with consideration of adsorption, diffusion, and biodegradation effects. Laboratory experiments were conducted with selected Baltimore harbor sediments to characterize their carbon content and type, as well as their sorption behavior with respect to a probe nonpolar organic chemical (phenanthrene) to assess the potential importance of sorption nonlinearity and competition in urban sediments. A two-point test of phenanthrene sorption using sediments with a high fraction of soot carbon showed log Koc slightly higher than would be expected for “normal” sediment organic matter. Additional studies with other sediments will be conducted to more fully investigate the potential importance of sorption nonlinearity and sorption competition.

Project 5: Speciation of Chromium in Environmental Media Using Capillary Electrophoresis With Multiple Wavelength UV/Visible Detection (PIs: Alan Stone [JHU] and Charles O'Melia [JHU]). This project is improving the method used for measuring the speciation of chromium so that we can more accurately assess its toxicity in all environmental media. The improved chromium speciation procedure will be used in subsequent chromium research within the Center.
With chromium, it is widely accepted that the oxidation state is important for appraising extents of contamination, predicting future contaminant migration behavior, and devising mitigation schemes. The diphenylcarbazide test for distinguishing Cr(VI) from Cr(III) is most common, but is subject to interference problems. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method is being developed for identifying and quantifying Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species. CE allows analytical separation based on differences in the charge and hydrodynamic radii of analyte complexes. The results show that Cr(III)-containing low molecular-weight complexes can be efficiently resolved from one another and from the Cr(VI) species HCrO4- and CrO4-2. The detection limit is around 1 µM or 50 ppb. Aqueous samples collected from the field must be stored for hours or for days before analysis can be performed. Cr(III) complexes were not adversely affected by up to 10 days of storage. With the CE method, it is possible to calibrate the electrophoretic mobility in terms of the molecular charge of the analyte. Consequently, the molecular charge of unknown peaks is readily obtained by CE. Future work will focus on natural organic matter (NOM)-rich surface waters to determine possible matrix effects from the presence of NOM.

Project 6: Zero-Valent Metal Treatment of Halogenated Vapor-Phase Contaminants in SVE Offgas (PIs: A. Lynn Roberts [JHU] and Howard Fairbrother [JHU]). This project is focusing on remediation of chlorinated solvents in vapors through an innovative technology that provides greater permanent risk reduction at potentially lower cost. Zero-valent metal technology has emerged as a highly promising approach for in situ treatment of groundwater contaminants, but its applicability to vapor phase contaminants is virtually unexplored. This research is exploring the use of zero-valent metals and biometallic reductants for treating vapor-phase organohalides found in offgas from soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems. The rates of reaction of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) with Ni/Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Fe, and Fe alone were compared in batch studies. Among the three bimetallic systems, the reaction rates with Ni/Fe were significantly faster. Additional batch reactors were used to investigate the effect of nickel loading on the observed rates of reaction. At low Ni loadings, the rate of cis-DCE removal increases quickly with Ni concentration, but at higher Ni loadings, the rate increases more slowly. Higher Ni loadings also were found to favor the generation of more fully dechlorinated products, and to result in a lower yield of vinyl chloride. Cis-DCE was introduced as a vapor into columns containing Fe or Ni/Fe to test the applicability to the treatment of gas-phase contaminants. The Ni/Fe columns initially performed much better than the Fe columns, with 100-percent cis-DCE removal initially in the former and between 0 and 60 percent in the latter. Over time, the performance of all of the columns deteriorated. Eventually, the performance of the Ni/Fe columns deteriorated to a level comparable to that of the Fe columns. The initial reactivity could largely be regenerated by passing a 1-M HCl solution through the columns, then rinsing them with deionized water.

Project 7: Environmental Assessment and GIS System Development of Brownfield Sites in Baltimore (PIs: Guangming Chen [MSU], Gbekeloluwa Oguntimein [MSU], and Sedley Williams [MSU]). This project is surveying selected brownfield sites in Baltimore, and developing a geographic information system (GIS) inventory of environmental data and activities at these sites. The objectives of this research project are to: (1) work in collaboration with city, state, and federal partners to collect, analyze, and document the data on the locations, usage history, risk factors, and potential for remediation of selected existing brownfield sites in the Park Heights community within Baltimore; (2) develop a comprehensive GIS inventory of environmental activities at these sites; and (3) conduct outreach activities that will provide community service, environmental education, and information through the creation of partnership with stakeholders impacted by brownfields. The project team has completed environmental site assessments for three brownfield sites in the area, and has completed an economic assessment of the community neighborhood. This information is useful for the baseline study of strategic planning for brownfields redevelopment. A survey of autobody shops located in the Park Heights Reisterstown corridor also was completed. The survey information helped determine the occupational, safety practices, and environmental impact of the autobody shop operations. A GIS mapping of the Park Heights community using ArcGIS 8 was accomplished for the brownfield sites and autobody shops. A 1-day environmental education program was conducted at the Baltimore City High School.

Projects Selected for Funding in Year 3 of the Projects

The CHSUE issued a request for proposals in April 2003, for Years 3 and 4 of the Center's research program. Nine proposals were received from PIs representing each of the five partnering institutions. Written reviews of the nine proposals were prepared by members of our Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC). The SAC met on June 16, 2003, to discuss each proposal, update individual written reviews, develop consensus reviews, and make funding recommendations. The projects selected for funding with a start date of October 1, 2003, are listed below:

Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere (PIs: Baker [UM], Mason [UM], and Ondov [UM]).

Co-contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils: Phase II (PIs: Ball [JHU], Bouwer [JHU], and Mackay [UConn]).

Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site (PIs: MacKay [UConn], Smets [UConn], and Fairbrother [JHU]).

Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas (PIs: Parlange [JHU] and Meneveau [JHU]).

Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II) (PI: Stone [JHU]).

The SAC recommended funding a project that will ascertain the most pressing urban environmental problems in EPA Regions 1, 2, and 3. The Directors of the CHSUE have asked the researchers at MSU to prepare a 1-year study on the most pressing urban environmental problems in the Northeast. This activity may culminate with a regional workshop.

Outreach Program

The CHSUE Outreach Program is a collaborative effort between JHU (lead institution), UConn (representing EPA Region 1), NJIT (representing EPA Region 2), and UM and MSU (representing EPA Region 3). The goal of the Outreach Program is to transfer knowledge and technology resulting from the research projects and expertise of the PIs and technical staff to communities with environmental contamination throughout the Regions. The details of the Outreach activities being conducted by the CHSUE are described in the Annual Report Summary for R828771C007.

New Proposal

In September 2003, the CHSUE prepared a proposal to EPA, which described a plan to provide additional Training and Technical Assistance to Brownfields (TTAB). Under training, efforts are proposed to provide knowledge on brownfields issues to stakeholders through various methods, including classroom style training, workshops, conferences, roundtables, and Internet communications. Under technical assistance, efforts are proposed to guide stakeholders through a particular process or help them understand complex brownfields-related subject matter. Participants at each of the partnering institutions will contribute to the proposed TTAB efforts. In EPA Region 1, collaborators at the UConn propose the following TTAB projects: (1) Ninigret Park (Charleston, RI); (2) Mallory Hat Factory (Danbury, CT); (3) Regional Growth Partnership (Bridgeport, CT); (4) Redevelopment of Contaminated Land (Stamford, CT); and (5) Hartford Police Shooting Range (Rocky Hills, CT). In EPA Region 2, collaborators at the NJIT propose the following TTAB projects: (1) Area-wide Assessment (Kingston, NY); (2) Task Force Training (Lackawanna, NY); (3) Institutional Controls Training (Newark, NJ); (4) New Jersey Brownfields Development Areas; (5) New Jersey School Construction; and (6) New York State Department of Housing and Community Renewal. In EPA Region 3, collaborators at the UM and JHU propose the following TTAB projects: (1) Community Leadership Training; (2) Community Involvement Training; (3) Health Care Provider Training; (4) Workshops on Risk Communication; (5) Workshops on Economics of Brownfields Cleanup and Redevelopment; and (6) Technical Assistance and Technical Document Review.

Collaborators at the MSU propose to contribute to TTAB in EPA Region 3 via technical assistance to the Park Heights Reisterstown Road Corridor Coalition Community.

Advisory Committees

The CHSUE benefits from guidance supplied by two external advisory committees. Our SAC is comprised of 16 representatives from EPA, industry, government offices and laboratories, and academia (see Table 1).

Table 1. Members of the Science Advisory Committee

Name Representation
Paul Roberts, Chair Professor Emeritus, Stanford University
Ron DiCola Assistant Director, Environmental Affairs, Pfizer, Inc.
Domenic Grasso Rosemary Bradford Hewlett Professor and Chair, Smith College
Reginald Harris Senior Toxicologist, U.S. EPA Region 3
Hilary Inyang Duke Energy Distinguished Professor, The University of North Carolina-Charlotte
James Johnson, Co-Chair Dean and Professor, Howard University
Jon Josephs Hazardous Substances Liaison, U.S. EPA Region 2
Jeff Josephson Special Assistant to the Director, U.S. EPA Region 2
Kurt Krammer Environmental Manager, FMC Corporation
Norm Kulujian Superfund Coordinator, U.S. EPA Region 3
William Linak Chemical Engineer, U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division
Michelle Lorah Research Hydrologist
Ian MacFarlane Branch Manager, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Robert Summers Director, Waste Management Administration, Maryland Department of the Environment
Richard Willey Hydrologist, U.S. EPA Region 1
Chen Yen Vice President, Gannett Fleming, Inc.

Professor Paul Roberts serves as Chair of the SAC. The purpose for the SAC is to assist the CHSUE in evaluating the merit, value, and contribution of research projects and the relevance and importance of individual organizational elements to accomplishing the overall objectives of the Center. Two SAC meetings were held in the second year of the CHSUE. The first SAC meeting was held October 21-22, 2002, with the purpose of learning about the research program and providing feedback on specific research projects. The second SAC meeting was held on June 16, 2003, with the purpose of reviewing proposals and selecting new research projects for the CHSUE. At both of these meetings, the SAC provided some general advice on the mission and conduct of the CHSUE.

Our Outreach Advisory Committee (OAC) is comprised of 11 representatives from EPA, other government offices, industry, and the community (see Table 2). The purpose for the OAC is to assist the CHSUE in the development, implementation, and evaluation of education, knowledge transfer, and outreach activities and to identify outreach funding opportunities. The first OAC meeting was held on November 7, 2002. An important deliverable from this first OAC meeting is a Vision and Mission statement for the OAC and the Outreach Program . The next OAC meeting will take place on November 14, 2003, at NJIT.

Table 2. Members of the Outreach Advisory Committee

Name Representation
Mike Burke Senior State Liaison Officer, U.S. EPA Region 3
Larry Charles–Co-chair Director and Member, ONE/Chane and National Environmental Justice Advisory Committee
Elissa Harris Environmental Equity Coordinator, PA Department of Environmental Protection
Stacey Johnson Hartford City Program Manager, U.S. EPA Region 1 Urban Environmental Initiative
Jim Murphy RAA, U.S. EPA Region 1
Vincent Pitruzzello Chief, Program Support Branch, Emergency and Remedial Response Division, U.S. EPA Region 2
Mary Rosso Delegate, Maryland House of Delegates
Judith Shaw–Co-chair Administrator, Brownfields Office, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
Ira Whitman President, Whitman Companies, Inc., East Brunswick, New Jersey
Shari Wilson Director of Policy Management, Maryland Department of the Environment
Harold Yates Senior Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA Region 3

Other Activities

In addition to the research and outreach programs, the CHSUE participated in several other noteworthy activities in the past year, including:

TOSC/TAB/U.S. EPA Conference, March 4-6, 2003. The CHSUE hosted the annual TOSC/TAB/U.S. EPA conference at the Radisson Hotel in Baltimore, MD. The theme for this conference was Planning, Collaboration, and Sustainability. The 2 ½-day conference covered sessions on self-sufficiency, collaborative partnerships, including connecting with health care providers, community visioning, multimedia information distribution, and a poster session to highlight recent accomplishments by all of the centers. The conference included two panels with speakers. One panel encompassed community, legislative, and developer's viewpoints (Larry Charles, Director of ONE/Chane and member of NEJAC, Mary Rosso, former Maryland State Delegate, and Josh Neiman, Struever Brothers, Eccles, and Rouse, Inc.). The second panel included presentations from several directors at EPA Headquarters (Steve Lingle, Director of the Environmental Engineering Research Division for the National Center for Environmental Research; Bob Springer, Director of the Office of Solid Waste; Michael Cook, Director of the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response; and Linda Garzyncski, Director of the Office of Brownfields Cleanup and Redevelopment). JHU also hosted a dinner at the Hopkins Club featuring a keynote address by Lois Gibbs, Executive Director of the Center for Health, Environment, and Justice.

International Conference on PAH and BTEX Contamination. The CHSUE and the National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Program cosponsored an International Conference on PAH and BTEX Contamination on June 2, 2003, at JHU. This conference provided a forum for interaction among researchers working on the topics of sorption and bioavailability. The total attendance numbered close to 30 individuals, with representatives from government, industry, and academia.

Meeting on Superfund Research. William Ball, Ed Bouwer, Allison MacKay, and Barth Smets participated in the Office of Research and Development/HSRC/Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Meeting on Superfund Research held August 26-27, 2003, in Cincinnati, OH. The purpose of this meeting was to promote better communication and interaction between EPA researchers and the research being conducted by the HSRCs. Two presentations were given by the CHSUE members at this meeting.

Other Meetings and Seminars. Barbara Sattler (UM), Robyn Gilden (UM), Hedy Alavi (JHU), and Ed Bouwer (JHU) participated in the annual Director's meeting in Washington, DC, December 2-3, 2002. The CHSUE sponsored eight technical seminars at JHU during the past year (see Table 3).

Table 3. Technical Seminars Held at JHU

October 4, 2002 Professor Barbara Sattler
School of Nursing
University of Maryland
Environmental Health's Interdisciplinary Team: A Focus on the Nursing Profession's Role
November 1, 2002 Elie Bou-Zeid (RP#2) A Lagrangian Dynamic SGS Model for LES: Applications to Heterogeneous Surfaces and Urban Areas
November 15, 2002 Dr. Isam Sabbah (RP#4) Diffusion as a Source of Confusion
November 22, 2002 Rich Carbonaro (RP#5) Cr(III) Oxidation by MnO2
January 31, 2003 Dr. Molly McGuire (RP#6) Surface Characterization of Iron and Bimetallic Reductants
February 7, 2003 Thanh Nguyen (RP#4) Adsorption of Organic Chemicals to Black Carbon: Method Development
February 14, 2003 Dr. Ted Goldstein (retired chemist from Mobil) Oil Formation
April 11, 2003 David Cwiertny (RP#6) Mechanistic Investigations of Granular Iron and Granular Iron-Based Bimetallic Reductants

Future Activities:

In January 2004, the CHSUE will sponsor an internal workshop at JHU to aid in knowledge transfer within the research program. The PIs for each of the seven research projects will make presentations on their progress and future plans. This workshop will allow the PIs to: (1) share research progress through presentations, which will facilitate integration of the information in future work; (2) discuss future research directions; (3) discuss the plans for a five Centers meeting; and (4) discuss plans for the next SAC meeting. The Center will be funding five new research projects in Year 3.


Journal Articles: 20 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 108 publications 22 publications in selected types All 20 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Bou-Zeid E, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. Large-eddy simulation of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over heterogeneous surfaces: blending height and effective surface roughness. Water Resources Research 2004;40:W02505.
abstract available  
R828771C004 (2004)
R828771C004 (2005)
R828771C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bou-Zeid E, Meneveau C, Parlange M. A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows. Physics of Fluids 2005;17:025105.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C004 (2005)
    R828771C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Carbonaro RF, Stone AT. Speciation of chromium(III) and cobalt(III) (Amino)carboxylate complexes using capillary electrophoresis. Analytical Chemistry. 2005;77(1):155-164. R828771C005 (2004)
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    Journal Article CHSUE assisted with preparation. Description of the Phase II HSRC grants. 2002 Centerpoint 2002;7(1). R828771 (2002)
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    Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Improved GC/MS methods for measuring hourly PAH and nitro-PAH concentrations in urban particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(35):6764-6779.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Measurement of aerosol PAH and Nitro-PAH concentrations in ambient urban air with hourly resolution. Atmospheric Environment. R828771C015 (2005)
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    Journal Article Gan P, Yu R, Smets BF, MacKay AA. Sampling methods to determine the spatial gradients and flux of arsenic at a groundwater seepage zone. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2006;25(6):1487-1495.
    abstract available  
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C013 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Ball WP, Bouwer EJ. Modeling and interpreting bioavailability of organic contaminant mixtures in subsurface environments. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 2006;82(3-4):255-292.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Bouwer EJ, Ball WP. The influence of biogeochemical conditions and level of model complexity when simulating cometabolic biodegradation in sorbent-water systems. Advances in Water Resources 2006;29(4):571-589.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Haws NW, Ball WP, Bouwer EJ. Effects of initial solute distribution on contaminant availability, desorption modeling, and subsurface remediation. Journal of Environmental Quality 2007;36(5):1392-1402.
    abstract available  
    R828771C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Landis MS, Stevens RK, Schaedlich F, Prestbo EM. Development and characterization of an annular denuder methodology for the measurement of divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(13):3000-3009.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Other: Atmospheric-Research PDF
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  • Journal Article Laurier FJG, Mason RP, Whalin L, Kato S. Reactive gaseous mercury formation in the North Pacific Ocean's marine boundary layer: a potential role of halogen chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2003;108(D17):4529, doi:10.1029/2003JD003625.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Nguyen TH, Sabbah I, Ball WP. Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(13):3595-3603.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Other: ACS Publications PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Pancras JP, Ondov JM, Zeisler R. Multi-element electrothermal AAS determination of 11 marker elements in fine ambient aerosol slurry samples collected with SEAS-II. Analytica Chimica Acta 2005;538(1-2):303-312.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (2005)
    R828771C015 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full-Text
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect - Full Text - PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Park SS, Pancras JP, Ondov J, Poor N. A new pseudodeterministic multivariate receptor model for individual source apportionment using highly time-resolved ambient concentration measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2005;110(D7):D07S15, doi:10.1029/2004JD004664.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (2005)
    R828771C015 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article McGuire MM, Carlson DL, Vikesland PJ, Kohn T, Grenier AC, Langley LA, Roberts AL, Fairbrother DH. Applications of surface analysis in the environmental sciences: dehalogenation of chlorocarbons with zero-valent iron and iron-containing mineral surfaces. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2003;496(1-2):301-313.
    full text available
    R828771C006 (2003)
    R828164 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Grenier AC, McGuire MM, Fairbrother DH, Roberts AL. Treatment of vapor-phase organohalides with zero-valent iron and Ni/Fe reductants. Environmental Engineering Science. 2004;21(4):421-435. R828771C006 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Sabbah I, Ball WP, Young DF, Bouwer EJ. Misinterpretations in the modeling of contaminant desorption from environmental solids when equilibrium conditions are not fully understood. Environmental Engineering Science 2005;22(3):350-366.
    abstract available  
    R828771C001 (2004)
    R828771C001 (2005)
    R828771C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Liebert Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Liebert PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Tseng Y-H, Meneveau C, Parlange MB. Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(8):2653-2662.
    abstract available   full text available
    R828771C004 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Other: American Chemical Society PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Yu R, Gan P, MacKay AA, Zhang S, Smets BF. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2010;71(2):260-271.
    abstract available  
    R828771 (Final)
    R828771C013 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    toxics, exposure, brownfields, hazardous substances, assessment, cleanup, risk communication., RFA, Scientific Discipline, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Geographic Area, Waste, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Environmental Chemistry, Chemicals, Brownfields, Hazardous Waste, Mid-Atlantic, Ecological Risk Assessment, Hazardous, hazardous waste disposal, hazardous waste management, hazardous waste treatment, brownfield sites, environmental hazards, contaminated waste sites, mercury, urban waste management, Chromium, risk assessment , assessing metal speciation, chemical releases, cadmium, hazardous waste characterization, arsenic, heavy metals

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.jhu.edu/hsrc/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828771C001 Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils: Phase II
    R828771C002 The Fate and Potential Bioavailability of Airborne Urban Contaminants
    R828771C003 Geochemistry, Biochemistry, and Surface/Groundwater Interactions for As, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd with Applications to Contaminated Waterfronts
    R828771C004 Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas
    R828771C005 Speciation of chromium in environmental media using capillary electrophoresis with multiple wavlength UV/visible detection
    R828771C006 Zero-Valent Metal Treatment of Halogenated Vapor-Phase Contaminants in SVE Offgas
    R828771C007 The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) Outreach Program
    R828771C008 New Jersey Institute of Technology Outreach Program for EPA Region II
    R828771C009 Urban Environmental Issues: Hartford Technology Transfer and Outreach
    R828771C010 University of Maryland Outreach Component
    R828771C011 Environmental Assessment and GIS System Development of Brownfield Sites in Baltimore
    R828771C012 Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II)
    R828771C013 Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site
    R828771C014 Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
    R828771C015 Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere