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Main Title Evaluation of emissions and control techniques for reducing fluoride emissions from gypsum ponds in the phosphoric acid industry /
Author Linero, A. A., ; Baker., R. A.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Baker, R. A.
CORP Author Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gainesville, Fla.;Industrial Environmental Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, N.C.
Publisher Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development ; For sale by the National Technical Information Service,
Year Published 1978
Report Number EPA-600/2-78-124; EPA-68-02-1330
Stock Number PB-283 697
OCLC Number 04647680
ISBN pbk.
Subjects Pollution--United States ; Gypsum ; Phosphoric acid ; Calcium Sulfate ; Phosphoric Acids
Additional Subjects Phosphoric acids ; Manufacturing ; Air pollution ; Fluorides ; Management planning ; Ponds ; Phosphate deposits ; Sulfuric acid ; Calcium sulfates ; Solid waste disposal ; Cooling ; Calcium oxides ; Process charting ; Economic analyses ; Land use ; Process charting ; Mathematical analysis ; Chemical reactions ; Fluorine ; Phosphate industry ; Air pollution control ; Land disposal ; Hydrogen/hexafluorosilicate ; Silicate/hexafluoro
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EHAM  EPA-600/2-78-124 Region 1 Library/Boston,MA 05/25/2016
EJBD  EPA 600-2-78-124 c.1 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 03/26/2014
ELBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-2-76-124 Received from HQ AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 10/04/2023
ESAD  EPA 600-2-78-124 Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA 03/23/2010
NTIS  PB-283 697 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation ix, 219 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
The report gives results of a study of gaseous emissions from gypsum disposal and cooling water ponds to determine their potential as sources of airborne fluorides from the manufacture of phosphoric acid. A model of the chemistry within the pond environment was developed. Previous emission rate studies were evaluated with respect to assumptions, methodologies, and conclusions: none provided a sufficient basis for determining a fluoride emission factor. The ponds, found in major phosphate production areas (e.g., Florida, North Carolina, and the Western U.S.), usually cover several hundred acres. Process water enters a pond at over 100 F, and leaves at lower temperatures after evaporative cooling. Ambient concentrations near a typical pond were calculated by predictive modeling methods, assuming emission rates of 0.1, 1, and 10 lb per acre per day. At the higher rates, control of fluoride emissions appears necessary. An analysis of possible control methods indicated that liming is too expensive an alternative. The most promising method appears to be the Swift process for fluorosilicic acid recovery, coupled with segregation of the cooling and gypsum pond waters. The hemi/dihydrate process also appears to be promising.
Contract no. 68-02-1330, task no. 3, program element no. 1AB604. Issued June 1978. Includes bibliographical references (pages 216-218).