||Reclamation of Toxic Mine Waste Utilizing Sewage Sludge Contrary Creek Demonstration Project.
Hinkle, Kenneth R. ;
||Virginia State Water Control Board, Bridgewater.;Industrial Environmental Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
Mine waters ;
Surface mining ;
Contrary Creek ;
Land reclamation ;
Soil properties ;
Mine acid drainage ;
Abandoned mines ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
Three abandoned pyrite mines in central Virginia that had been inactive since 1923 contained about 12 denuded ha and caused severe acid mine drainage (AMD) in a small stream known as Contrary Creek. The AMD included heavy metals and rendered the stream virtually void of aquatic life. The Virginia State Water Control Board (SWCB) was prompted to seek a solution to this problem when plans were announced in 1968 to construct a reservoir for a nuclear power plant downstream from Contrary Creek. Two of the mines comprising about 8 ha were reclaimed with an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) demonstration grant with the SWCB contributing matching funds by in-kind services and the Soil Conservation Service providing technical assistance. Reclamation began in 1976 and included the use of sewage sludge as a soil conditioner. Severe droughts in 1976 and 1977 and the highly toxic nature of the mine wastes necessitated a continuing maintenance program to establish vegetation. By the fall of 1980 approximately 90 per cent of the reclaimed areas supported fair to good grass cover.