Associated Project Details for Research Category: SBIR - Water and Wastewater

68D00025 Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction of Phenolics from Industrial Wastewaters SBIR July 1, 1990 through January 1, 1991
68D00030 Novel Cleanup of Metal Working Wastewaters SBIR August 1, 1990 through February 1, 1991
68D00031 Electrochemical Enzyme Immunoassay to Study Alternative Drinking Water Treatment SBIR August 1, 1990 through February 1, 1991
68D00033 Removal of Chlorine Dioxide By-products from Drinking Water SBIR August 1, 1990 through February 1, 1991
68D00234 An Innovative Online Monitoring and Control System for Improved Biological Nutrient Removal SBIR September 1, 2000 through March 1, 2001
68D00241 Removal of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals of Industrial and Contaminated Site Waste Waters by Organic Chelation, Coprecipitation, and High-Efficiency Particulate Removal SBIR September 1, 2000 through March 1, 2001
68D00250 An Electroporation Drinking Water Disinfection System SBIR September 1, 2000 through March 1, 2001
68D00257 Innovative Ultraviolet Light Source for Disinfection of Drinking Water SBIR September 1, 2000 through March 1, 2001
68D00260 Thioether Amended Silica-Polyamine Composite Materials for Mercury (II) Extraction SBIR September 1, 2000 through March 1, 2001
68D00276 A Novel Approach To Prevention of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) SBIR September 1, 2000 through September 1, 2002
68D01014 MTBE Removal From Drinking Water SBIR April 1, 2001 through September 1, 2001
68D01017 Nontoxic Exotic Species/Organic Compound Waterway Contamination Control SBIR April 1, 2001 through September 1, 2001
68D01026 A Novel Treatment Method of Drinking Water SBIR April 1, 2001 through September 1, 2001
68D01030 Combined Centrifugal Separator/Membrane Ultrafiltration System for Shipboard Treatment of Bilge and Ballast Water SBIR April 1, 2001 through September 1, 2001
68D01040 Nontoxic Sparker Control of Zebra Mussels SBIR April 1, 2001 through September 1, 2001
68D01057 Innovative Ultraviolet Light Source for Disinfection of Drinking Water SBIR September 1, 2001 through September 1, 2003
68D01062 Removal of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals of Industrial and Contaminated Site Waste Waters by Organic Chelation, Coprecipitation and High-Efficiency Particulate Removal SBIR September 1, 2001 through September 1, 2003
68D02011 Innovative Oxidation Treatment for Removal of MTBE From Drinking Water Using a Combined Photocatalytic Reactor and Ozone Generator SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02015 Fouling-Resistant Ultrafiltration Membranes for Treatment of Oily Bilge Water SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02017 Development of a Cavitating Jet System for Removal of Pesticides and Other Pollutants From Wastewater Discharge SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02019 Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02031 A Microengineered Adsorbent for Arsenic Removal for Small Drinking Water Treatment Facilities SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02032 Development of Reliable, Cost-Effective Membrane Technology for Industrial Wastewater Treatment SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02039 Inexpensive Composite Materials for Arsenic (III/V) Removal From Drinking Water SBIR April 1, 2002 through September 1, 2002
68D02052 Nontoxic Exotic Species/Organic Compound Waterway Contamination Control SBIR June 1, 2002 through June 1, 2004
68D02055 Combined Centrifugal Separator/Membrane Ultrafiltration System for Shipboard Treatment of Bilge and Ballast Water SBIR June 1, 2002 through June 1, 2004
68D02059 Nontoxic Sparker Control of Zebra Mussels SBIR June 1, 2002 through June 1, 2004
68D02078 Arsenic Removal System for Residential and Point-of-Use Applications SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02087 Nano Alumina Arsenic Filter SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02088 Advanced Concrete Materials for Water and Wastewater Pipeline Repair and Construction SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02089 Wastewater Treatment by Pulsed Electric Field Processing SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02092 Treatment of Arsenic in Small Drinking Water Systems Using Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports, A High-Capacity Selective Sorbent SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02093 Limestone-Based Material for Arsenic Removal From Drinking Water SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02095 Nanocomposite-Based Filter for Arsenic Removal in Drinking Water SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02096 Simultaneous Removal of Arsenite As (III) and Arsenate As (V) From Drinking Water Using a Novel Photoactive Adsorbent SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02097 Development of New Concrete-Based Wastewater Infrastructure Systems With Enhanced Durability, Structural Efficiency, and Hydrological Performance SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02098 Removal of Arsenic From Drinking Water Using a Novel Hybrid Sorbent SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02099 Subsurface Treatment for Arsenic Removal SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D02100 Upflow Filters for the Rapid and Effective Treatment of Stormwater at Critical Source Areas SBIR October 1, 2002 through July 31, 2003
68D03018 Neurotoxic/Cytotoxin Detection in Water Supplies During Sample Collection SBIR April 1, 2003 through September 1, 2003
68D03028 Sulfide Mineral Coating Process To Control Acid Rock Drainage SBIR April 1, 2003 through September 1, 2003
68D03029 Removal of VOCs From Water With an Air-Stripper/Membrane Vapor Separation System SBIR April 1, 2003 through September 1, 2003
68D03036 Rapid and Sensitive Electrochemical-Based Method for Improved Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in Water SBIR April 1, 2003 through September 1, 2003
68D03037 Electrochemical Reduction of Perchlorates in Potable Water SBIR April 1, 2003 through September 1, 2003
68D03062 Arsenic Removal System for Residential and Point-of-Use Applications SBIR October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004
68D03063 Removal of Arsenic From Drinking Water Using a Novel Hybrid Sorbent SBIR October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004
68D03064 Limestone-Based Material for Arsenic Removal From Drinking Water SBIR October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004
68D03065 Development of New Wastewater Infrastructure Systems With Enhanced Durability and Structural Efficiency SBIR October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004
68D03066 Development of a DynaJet Cavitation System for High-Rate Disinfection of Combined Sewer Overflows SBIR October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004
68D03068 Upflow Filter for Rapid and Effective Treatment of Stormwater at Critical Source Areas SBIR October 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004
68D10033 A New Control/Optimization Instrument for Coagulation Management SBIR September 1, 1991 through March 1, 1992
68D10041 Automated ORP Process Control for an Oxidation Ditch Internal Anoxic Mixing System SBIR September 1, 1991 through March 1, 1992
68D10047 New Sorbents for Trace Heavy Metal Removal from Drinking Water SBIR September 1, 1991 through March 1, 1992
68D10059 Offgas Recycle for Enhanced VOC Biodegradation-An Innovative VOC Control Strategy SBIR September 1, 1991 through March 1, 1992
68D10129 Improved Anaerobic Digestion Through Biological Enhancement SBIR September 1, 1991 through March 1, 1992
68D30070 A Low Life-Cycle Cost UV Source and Reactor to Oxidize Aqueous Phase Organics SBIR September 1, 1993 through April 1, 1995
68D30114 A Novel Process for Heavy Metal Removal From Industrial Waste Water SBIR September 1, 1993 through March 1, 1994
68D30121 Membrane Dissolution of Hydrogen Gas for Nitrate Removal From Drinking Water and Brines SBIR September 1, 1993 through March 1, 1994
68D30127 Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction of Selenium from Refinery Wastewaters SBIR September 1, 1993 through March 1, 1994
68D30135 Drinking Water Treatment by Directional Freeze Crystallization SBIR September 1, 1993 through March 1, 1994
68D40037 Bubbleless Oxygen Dissolution for Reducing VOC Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40040 Fiber Optic Probe for Disinfection By-Product Coagulation Optimization SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40043 Novel Method for DBP Precursor Removal SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40046 Enzymatic Nitrate Elimination Technology for Small Systems SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40048 A Unique Driving Force Regenerable Zeolite Ion Exchange System for Waste Water Treatment and Strategic Resources Recovery SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40057 A New Charge Based Coagulant Dose Control Instrument SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40061 A Novel Extractant for the Selective Removal of Arsenic from Industrial Wastewaters SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D40069 Emulsion Liquid Membrane Extraction of Selenium from Refinery Wastewaters SBIR September 1, 1994 through December 1, 1997
68D4031 Fouling-Resistant Ceramic Membranes for Treatment of Metastable Oil/Water Emulsions SBIR September 1, 1994 through March 1, 1995
68D50077 Novel Nonporous Nanofiltration Membrane for Wastewater Treatment SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D50080 Novel Sorbents for Sorption and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Wastewater SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D50081 Zeolite Membranes for Removal of Contaminants in Drinking Water SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D50088 On-Site Recovery of Glycols from Airport Deicing Fluid Using Polymeric/Ceramic Composite Membranes SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D50102 Hazardous Metal Filter SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D50107 On-Line Production of Oxidant for UV Oxidation Processes SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D50115 A Novel Extractant for the Selective Removal of Arsenic from Industrial Wastewaters SBIR September 1, 1995 through January 1, 1998
68D50124 Fouling-Resistant Ceramic Membranes for Treatment of Metastable Oil/Water Emulsions SBIR September 1, 1995 through October 1, 1998
68D50127 Enzymatic Nitrate Elimination Technology for Small Systems SBIR September 1, 1995 through October 1, 1997
68D50145 Novel Method for DBP Removal SBIR September 1, 1995 through July 1, 1998
68D50146 A New Charge Based Coagulant Dose Control Instrument SBIR September 1, 1995 through July 1, 1997
68D5078 Trace Heavy Metal Removal from Drinking Water SBIR September 1, 1995 through March 1, 1996
68D60026 Investigation of Catalysts to Enhance the Photo-Oxidation of Organics in Wastewaters SBIR September 1, 1996 through March 1, 1997
68D60031 Treatment of Produced Water from Coal-Bed Methane Production Using Carbon Aerogel Technology SBIR September 1, 1996 through March 1, 1997
68D60033 Innovative Complexing Agents for Recovery of Heavy Metals in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater SBIR September 1, 1996 through March 1, 1997
68D60052 On-Line Production of Oxidant for UV Oxidation Processes SBIR September 1, 1996 through April 1, 1998
68D60058 On-Site Recovery of Glycols from Airport Deicing Fluid Using Polymeric/Ceramic Composite Membranes SBIR September 1, 1996 through September 1, 1998
68D70015 One-Step Ceramic Membrane Process for Small Drinking Water Treatment Facilities SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70019 Development of a Low Toxicity Treatment for Zebra Mussels SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70020 An Innovative Photocatalytic Process for Silver Recovery SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70025 Low Cost Heavy Metals Removal from Hazardous Wastewaters SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70036 Novel Nonporous Capillary Nanofiltration Membrane for Wastewater Treatment SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70039 An Automated Electrophoretic Mobility Instrument for Coagulant Dose Control SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70040 Silica Materials for Mercury Recovery From Wastewater SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70043 Enhanced Ozone Treatment of Wastewater With Perfluoromembranes SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1998
68D70048 Innovating Complexing Agents for Recovery of Heavy Metals in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater SBIR September 1, 1997 through March 1, 1999
68D98114 Electrochemical Treatment of Textile Effluents with Simultaneous Recovery of Toxic Metals SBIR September 1, 1998 through March 1, 1999
68D98138 Development of an Improved BIO-SOK for Use in Bilge to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution SBIR September 1, 1998 through March 1, 1999
68D98139 The Development and Scale Up of an Enhanced Mass Transport Resin for Efficient and Cost Effective Heavy Metals Removal and Recovery SBIR September 1, 1998 through March 1, 1999
68D98149 Development of a Novel Ferroelectric, Cathode-Based Ozonator for Drinking Water Treatment SBIR September 1, 1998 through March 1, 1999
68D98150 Development and Demonstration of a Bench-Scale Prototype for the Effective Removal of Selenium in Wastewater SBIR September 1, 1998 through March 1, 1999
68D98161 One-Step Ceramic Membrane Process for Small Drinking Water Treatment Facilities SBIR September 1, 1998 through September 1, 2000
68D99028 Portable Pathogenic Predictor for Stormwater SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99032 Hydrothermal/Thermal Decomposition of Perchlorate SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99034 Microwave-Assisted Oxidative Recovery of Cyanide From the Thiocyanate-Containing Solutions SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99036 In Situ Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99041 Aluminate-Silicate-Based Antifouling Coatings SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99049 Singlet Oxygen Disinfection of Drinking Water SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99054 A Novel Approach to Prevention of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
68D99059 Acoustic-Enhanced Ozone Drinking Water Disinfection SBIR September 1, 1999 through March 1, 2000
EPD04030 Use of a Genetically Modified Organism To Assess Sewer Line Integrity SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04031 Novel Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor for Low-Flow Systems SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04032 Noncontact, Optical Molecular Method for Detection and Identification of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Drinking Water SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04035 Portable Detection of Algal Toxins Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Fiber Optic Probe Coated With a Molecular Imprinted Polymer SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04037 Toward Developing a Rapid Field-Testing Device: Regenerable Fujiwara Reagent as a Portable Technology for Measuring Drinking Water Pollution SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04040 Removal and Disposal of Perchlorate From Drinking Water by Novel Capacitive Deionization SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04049 Wireless Underwater Telemetry System for Surface Water Quality Monitoring SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04050 Stormwater Flow Control Device SBIR March 1, 2004 through August 31, 2004
EPD04057 Sulfide Mineral Coating Process To Control Acid Rock Drainage SBIR April 1, 2004 through June 30, 2005
EPD04067 Neurotoxin and Cytotoxin Detection in Water Supplies During Sample Collection SBIR April 1, 2004 through June 30, 2005
EPD05011 Management of CAFO Discharges Utilizing Controlled Eutrophication Process (CEP) Ponds for Liquid Waste Storage and Conversion to Bioproducts and Slow-Release Biofertilizers SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05025 Biosensor for Field Monitoring of Pesticides in Water SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05030 NanoActive™ Materials: Unique Sorbents for Perchlorate Removal From Water SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05033 A Low-Cost UV Raman Instrument Measuring Nitrate and Nitrite for Improved Operation and Control of Nitrification/Denitrification Treatment Processes SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05036 Automated Human Fecal Pollution Detection SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05037 Development of a Novel Virus Capture System Using Positively Charged Silica Matrix SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05044 A Hybrid Pathogen Detection System SBIR March 1, 2005 through August 31, 2005
EPD05055 Stormwater Flow Control Device SBIR April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2006
EPD06014 Development of Antibodies for the Detection of the Toxin Anatoxin by Immunoassay SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06024 Enhanced Ethanol Diesel Blends for Emission Reduction SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06025 New Process for Perchlorate Reduction in Drinking Water Treatment Units SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06034 Improved Rapid Detection of Viable Waterborne Pathogens SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06038 On-Line, Near Real Time Water Security BioMonitoring System SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06043 Field Analytical Method for Perchlorate SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06045 Ultra Sensitive Raman Device for Detecting Arsenic in Water Utilizing Fractal/Microcavity Composite SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06047 Real-Time Reagentless and Arrayed Detector for the Monitoring of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06049 Balloon Platforms for Remote Sensing of Water Quality in Mixing Zones SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06055 Automated Sample Collection and Concentration System for Multiple Pathogens in Water SBIR March 1, 2006 through August 31, 2006
EPD06084 Multiplexed Chemical Sensor for Water Security SBIR April 1, 2006 through June 30, 2007
EPD06086 Development of a Novel Virus Capture System Using Positively Charged Silica Matrix SBIR April 1, 2006 through June 30, 2007
EPD06088 A Hybrid Pathogen Detection System SBIR April 1, 2006 through June 30, 2007
EPD07034 Minerals Recovery of Copper Mine Tailings on Lake Superior Coastline for Use as Raw Material in the Manufacture of Roofing Shingles SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07037 Highly Bright, Heavy Metal-Free, and Stable Doped Semiconductor Nanophosphors for Economical Solid State Lighting Alternatives SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07040 Low-Cost Instrument for Long-Term Monitoring of Hazardous Contaminants in Drinking Water SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07041 Microbial Community Microarrays to Assess Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Water Quality SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07046 Rapid Indicator for Pollution SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07050 The Application of Ferrate for Wastewater Reuse SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07053 An Innovative Transport Membrane Condenser for Water Recovery From Gas and Its Reuse SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07055 Handheld FRET Aptamer Sensor to Satisfy the Beaches Act SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07056 Use of Surfactant Modified Clay and Zeolite for Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Water SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07057 Handheld MEMS-Based Detector of Toxins and Toxigenic Organisms Indicative of Harmful Algal Bloom SBIR March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
EPD07084 Improved Rapid Detection of Viable Waterborne Pathogens SBIR May 1, 2007 through April 30, 2009
EPD07086 Balloon Platforms for Remote Sensing of Water in Mixing Zones SBIR May 1, 2007 through April 30, 2009
EPD07089 Automated Sample Collection and Concentration System for Multiple Pathogens in Water SBIR May 1, 2007 through April 30, 2009
EPD08024 Sensitive, Quantitative, and Portable Anatoxin Assay Using Apatamers and Quantum Dot Nanoshell Reporting SBIR March 1, 2008 through August 31, 2008
EPD08029 Electrochemical Treatment and Recycling of Spent Perchlorate-Contaminated Ion-Exchange Regeneration Brine SBIR March 1, 2008 through August 31, 2008
EPD08032 Identifying and Monitoring Environmental Toxicity Using Ceriodaphnia Microarrays SBIR March 1, 2008 through August 31, 2008
EPD08063 An Innovative Transport Membrane Condenser Water Recovery from Flue Gas and its Reuse SBIR May 1, 2008 through July 31, 2011
EPD08064 Highly Bright, Heavy Metal-Free and Stable Doped Semiconductor Nano-Phosphors for Economical Solid State Lighting Alternatives SBIR May 1, 2008 through April 30, 2010
EPD09022 Electricity Generation From Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) SBIR February 1, 2009 through August 31, 2009
EPD09028 Reagentless Field-Usable Fixed-Site and Portable Analyzer for Trihalomethane (THM) Concentrations in Drinking Water SBIR February 1, 2009 through July 31, 2009
EPD09032 Rapid Concentration of Viruses from Water SBIR February 1, 2009 through July 31, 2009
EPD10016 Inexpensive, Rapid and Comprehensive Virulence and Marker Gene (VMG) Analyzer for Waterborne Pathogens SBIR March 1, 2010 through August 31, 2010
EPD10019 Antimicrobial-Coated Granular Filter Media for Drinking Water Treatment SBIR March 1, 2010 through August 31, 2010
EPD10038 Self-Healing Corrosion-Control Coatings: An Enabling Technology To Restore Aging Water Infrastructure and Permit Alternative Water Use for Cooling SBIR March 1, 2010 through August 31, 2010
EPD10043 Development of a Simple, Robust, and Inexpensive Alkalinity Sensor SBIR March 1, 2010 through August 31, 2010
EPD10059 Development and Commercialization of Granular Activated Carbon Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment and Power Generation SBIR May 1, 2010 through April 30, 2012
EPD10060 Reagentless Field-Usable Fixed-Site and Portable Analyzer for Trihalomethane (THM) Concentrations in Drinking Water SBIR May 1, 2010 through April 30, 2012
EPD10063 Rapid Concentration of Viruses from Water SBIR May 1, 2010 through April 30, 2012
EPD11032 Anaerobic Pre-Treatment for an Algae-Based Wastewater Treatment System SBIR March 18, 2011 through September 19, 2011
EPD11041 In-Situ Imaging of Water Pipelines Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves SBIR March 1, 2011 through August 31, 2011
EPD11052 Combination of Chlorine-Free Electrolytic and Photochemical Methods for Sterilization of Contaminated Waters SBIR March 1, 2011 through August 31, 2011
EPD12010 Comprehensive Assessment of Mycofiltration Biotechnology to Remove Pathogens from Urban Storm Water SBIR March 1, 2012 through August 31, 2012
EPD12027 Novel Lignin-Based Magnetite Nanocomposites for Removal of Phosphate from Contaminated Waters SBIR March 1, 2012 through August 31, 2012