History and Achievements -- Best practices in Earth Sciences. The national and international experience of the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences -- On the roots of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences -- 50 Years of Palaeomagnetic Studies in the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences -- Natural variations of the geomagnetic field â€’ observations and application to study of the Earth's interior and ionosphere -- Half century of the ozone observations at the Central Geophysical Observatory, IGF PAS, Belsk, Poland -- Forty years of water research at the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences -- Changes in catchment hydrology caused by changes in the environment - a contribution of the Water Resources Department, Institute of Geophysics PAS -- Five Polish seismic expeditions to the West Antarctica (1979-2007) -- Department of Polar and Marine Research: the Hornsund Station and Other Activities in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions -- Seismology and Earth Dynamics - a Variety of Scientific Approaches -- Sixty Years of Publishing with the Institute of Geophysics -- Exemplary Current Research and Geophysical Methods. -Discharge Measurements in Lowland Rivers: Field Comparison between an Electromagnetic Open Channel Flow Meter (EOCFM) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) -- Random Domino Automaton - Modeling Macroscopic Properties by Means of Microscopic Rules -- Continental Passive Margin West of Svalbard and Barents Sea in Polish Arctic Seismic Studies -- Selected Theoretical Methods in Solid Earth Physics - Contribution from the Institute of Geophysics PAS -- Application of Passive Hydroacoustics in the Studies of Sea-Ice, Icebergs and Glaciers: Issues, Approaches and Future Needs -- Pigeon navigation model based on a vector magnetometer -- Analysis of surface ozone variations based on the long-term measurement in Kraków (1854-1878), (2005-2013) and Belsk (1995-2012) -- Dissolved oxygen in rivers: concepts and measuring techniques -- Gradient-based similarity in the stable atmospheric boundary layer -- Asymmetric Continuum Theory: Fracture Processes in Seismology and Extreme Fluid Dynamics -- Time scales: Towards Extending the Finite Difference Technique for Non-homogeneous Grids. Over the last six decades, the field of geophysics has experienced rapid development. Seismic methods, magnetic studies, hydrology and atmospheric sciences have expanded thanks to a boom in the computer sciences and measurement techniques. The frontiers of geophysics have also expanded, now including research on the polar areas, both Arctic and Antarctic. All these events are clearly reflected in the 60-year-long history of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. This volume describes the most prominent achievements, the history of research and also the future potential of the Institute of Geophysics PAS. It describes measurements in various projects, methods of interpreting scientific data, and last but not least the people who have driven this research in many scientific projects.