Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title A history of land application as a treatment alternative /
Author Jewell, William J. ; Seabrook, Belford L.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Seabrook, Belford L.
CORP Author Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Municipal Construction Div.
Publisher U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Year Published 1979
Report Number EPA 430/9-79-012
Stock Number PB-298 227
OCLC Number 27317917
Subjects Water--Pollution--United States--History. ; Land treatment of wastewater--United States--History. ; Sewage--Purification--Biological treatment
Additional Subjects Irrigation ; Sewage treatment ; Water pollution abatement ; History ; Objectives ; Law(Jurisprudence) ; Great Britain ; United States ; Cost analysis ; Efficiency ; Rivers ; Standards ; Area ; Land reclamation ; Public health ; Europe ; Farms ; Bibliographies ; Sanitation ; Scotland ; Foreign technology ; Land application ; Alternative planning ; Sewage irrigation ; Eutrophication
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EJBD ARCHIVE EPA 430-9-79-012 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 02/02/2011
EJBD  EPA 430-9-79-012 c.1-2 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 05/01/2013
EKAM  430/9-79/012 Region 4 Library/Atlanta,GA 11/22/1996
EKBD  EPA 430/9-79-012 Research Triangle Park Library/RTP, NC 10/21/2013
ELBD  EPA 430-9-79-012 AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 07/09/2012
Collation viii, 83 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
The report describes why has land treatment been adopted in so few instances. This review was conducted to attempt to determine whether the history of land treatment could assist in explaining the reasons behind the apparent reluctance to use this wastewater treatment option, and to provide a basis of judging its future prospects. The approach to explain the major shifts that have occurred throughout the history of land treatment was to interweave the influences of social-public health concerns, legal issues, and technological developments. In ancient Greek and Roman times, public sanitation, the efficient removal of wastes by running water, and even land application of wastewaters were practiced. Shortly after this time and up until the early 1800's, public sanitation was almost non-existent. Wastewater treatment alternatives in use in Europe were being examined by the authorities in the U.S. in the 1890's. The image which they saw was characterized by increasing debates over the alternatives, numerous overloaded and poorly managed systems, and a rapidly developing water supply treatment technology. Today, over 3000 land treatment systems are in use in the U.S. and some have been effective for more than half a century. Surveys of land treatment system failures have shown that most convert from land treatment to discharge technology because of population expansion around the site, and not because of a failure of the renovation capability of the soil.
Technical report. "April 1979." "Richard E. Thomas, project officer." "EPA 430/9-79-012." Includes bibliographical references (pages 77-83).