||Cadmium contamination of the environment : an assessment of nationwide risks /
Delos, Charles G.
||Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Regulations and Standards.
|| Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Cadmium--Environmental aspects--United States. ;
Pollutants--Risk assessment--United States.
Hazardous materials ;
Environmental surveys ;
Public health ;
Industrial hygiene ;
Sludge disposal ;
Mathematical models ;
Industrial wastes ;
Air pollution ;
Water pollution ;
National government ;
Exhaust emissions ;
Materials tests ;
Waste disposal ;
Health risks ;
Toxic substances ;
Environmental health ;
Occupational safety and health ;
Heavy metals ;
Path of pollutants ;
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||Region 9 Library/San Francisco,CA
||Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA
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||xi, 63 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
The incidence of cadmium induced harm to human health and aquatic life was evaluated and linked to pathways of exposure and means of disposal. The population's median exposure appears to be 12% of the kidney toxicity threshold. Statistical extrapolations suggest that 1-2 persons/million might exceed a toxic threshold among nonsmokers, and somewhat more among smokers. For the potential of lung cancer, the median ambient inhalation exposure could be projected to yield a lifetime upper-bound risk of .000004. Data indicate that tobacco smoking and food contribute most of the population's total cadmium burden, and that ambient air inhalation and drinking water contribute much less. The cadmium content of food and tobacco is believed to be related to the cadmium content of topsoil. Most of the cadmium handled by man is likely to be disposed of by landfill burial. Nevertheless, there are some pathways for the addition of cadmium to cropland topsoil. These include phosphate fertilizer, sewage sludge land-spreading, emissions deposition, and irrigation water. Modeling suggests a very gradual increase in population exposure due to these pathways. The extent of any cadmium induced impairment of aquatic life remains uncertain. Point source discharges of cadmium are estimated to be decreasing, however.
"February 1985." "EPA/440-4-85-023." Includes bibliographical references (pages 57-63).