We summarized freshwater mussel data collected by the Monitoring and Non-tidal Assessment Division (MANTA) of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources from 1995-2009. Distributional accounts for 14 species of mussels were produced. We compared water chemistry, physical habitat, biological, and land use data collected at sites sampled with freshwater mussels to sites where mussels were not encountered. Alasmidonta heterodon (dwarf wedgemussel), Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio), E. fisheriana (northern lance), and Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater) were present in streams with lower gradient, greater mean width and discharge, and larger upstream catchments with minimal urban land cover or impervious surfaces compared to streams where they were absent. All four species were also found in streams with different concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate than streams were they were absent. Physical habitat metrics provided a narrative of the conditions where mussels were present, but were poor indicators of an ecological tolerance. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels may be intolerant to anthropogenic disturbances, such as land use alteration and subsequent water quality or biological impairment. Fish community data were analyzed to identify potential fish hosts of freshwater mussels and limitations upon their recruitment.