||Behavioral and Morphological Changes, in Fathead Minnow 'Pimephales promelas' as Diagnostic Endpoints for Screening Chemicals According to Mode of Action.
Drummond, R. A. ;
Russom, C. L. ;
Geiger, D. L. ;
DeFoe, D. L. ;
||Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN. ;Wisconsin Univ.-Superior. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies.
Animal behavior ;
Chemical compounds ;
Indicator species ;
Fresh water fishes ;
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Acute (96 hr) bioassays were conducted using 30-day old fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). A total of 139 tests were performed under flow-through conditions at a temperature of 25 + or - 1.0 C using Lake Superior water. A checklist was developed for systematically recording visual observations of behavioral and morphological changes. The checklist contained 40 different code items representing 10 general categories such as locomotor activity. Loss of schooling behavior appeared to be the most sensitive indicator of general stress. Although deviate changes in behavior were found to be sensitive indicators of stress, they cannot be used solely to classify chemicals according to mode of action. Gross morphological changes are equally important. Development of a model, based on behavioral and morphological data, appears possible for screening and differentiating chemicals according to toxic action.