Formaldehyde

CASRN 50-00-0

Health Hazard Assessments for Effects Other than Cancer


Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K) last updated: 09/01/1990

RfD (mg/kg-day) System Basis PoD Composite UF Confidence
2 x10-1 Urinary, Gastrointestinal, Other Reduced weight gain, histopathology in rats NOAEL : 1.5 x101
mg/kg-day
100 Medium

Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.

Cancer Assessment


Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K) last updated: 10/01/1989

WOE Characterization Framework for WOE Characterization
B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (US EPA, 1986)
Basis:
  • Based on limited evidence in humans, and sufficient evidence in animals. Human data include nine studies that show statistically significant associations between site-specific respiratory neoplasms and exposure to formaldehyde or formaldehyde-containing products. An increased incidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas was observed in long-term inhalation studies in rats and in mice. The classification is supported by in vitro genotoxicity data and formaldehyde's structural relationships to other carcinogenic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde.
  • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K)

Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure (PDF) (17 pp, 133 K)

Inhalation Unit Risk: 1.3 x10 -5 per µg/m3
Extrapolation Method: Linearized multistage procedure, additional risk
Tumor site(s): Respiratory
Tumor type(s): Squamous cell carcinoma (Kerns et al., 1983)



Formaldehyde is being reassessed.

Assessment Manager(s): Barbara Glenn (glenn.barbara@epa.gov), Andrew Kraft (kraft.andrew@epa.gov)

Step Assessment Materials Released to the Public Release Date Public Meeting Date
1 Problem Formulation Materials N/A N/A
1 Preliminary Assessment Materials N/A N/A
4 Public Comment Draft N/A N/A
4 Peer Review Draft 06/2010 05/2011
7 Post Final Assessment TBD

Please note: Any future dates displayed under Release Date are estimates and subject to change.

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