1,4-Dioxane

CASRN 123-91-1

Health Hazard Assessments for Effects Other than Cancer


Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (25 pp, 267 K) last updated: 08/11/2010

RfD (mg/kg-day) System Basis PoD Composite UF Confidence
3 x10-2 Hepatic, Urinary Liver and kidney toxicity NOAEL : 9.6
mg/kg-day
300 Medium

Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (25 pp, 267 K) last updated: 09/20/2013

RfC (mg/m3) System Basis PoD Composite UF Confidence
3 x10-2 Nervous, Respiratory Atrophy and respiratory metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium LOAEL (HEC): 32.2
mg/m3
1000 Medium

Cancer Assessment


Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (25 pp, 267 K) last updated: 09/20/2013

WOE Characterization Framework for WOE Characterization
Likely to be carcinogenic to humans Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (US EPA, 2005)
Basis:
  • In accordance with the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005, 1,4-dioxane is characterized as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans."
  • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure (PDF) (25 pp, 267 K)

Oral Slope Factor: 1 x10 -1 per mg/kg-day
Drinking Water Unit Risk: 2.9 x10 -6 per µg/L
Extrapolation Method: Log-logistic model with linear extrapolation from the POD (BMDL50HED) associated with 50% extra cancer risk.
Tumor site(s): Hepatic
Tumor type(s): Hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma (Kano et al. 2009)


Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure (PDF) (25 pp, 267 K)

Inhalation Unit Risk: 5 x10 -6 per µg/m3
Extrapolation Method: Multi-tumor dose-response model with linear extrapolation from the POD (BMDL10HED) associated with 10% extra cancer risk.
Tumor site(s): Reproductive, Other, Hepatic, Urinary, Gastrointestinal, Respiratory
Tumor type(s): Multiple (nasal, liver, kidney, peritoneal, mammary gland, and Zymbal gland) (Kasai et al. 2009)


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