Office of Research and Development Publications

Records 1 to 25 of 19426 Journals from ORD

Multivariate calibration for carbon nanotubes in the environment using the microwave induced heating method (JOURNAL)
With continuous increase in production and application of various types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the presence of a mixture of different types of CNTs in the environment cannot be neglected. Since distinct types of CNTs have different influences on environmental and human healt...
POU Water Filters Effectively Reduce Lead in Drinking Water: A Demonstration Field Study in Flint, Michigan (JOURNAL)
A field study was conducted to test the effectiveness of faucet-mounted point of use (POU) water filters for removing high concentrations of lead that can occur in drinking water due to plumbing sources including lead service lines (LSL). These filters were concurrently certified...
An algorithm for quantitatively estimating non-occupational pesticide exposure intensity for spouses in the Agricultural Health Study. (JOURNAL)
Residents of agricultural areas experience pesticide exposures from sources other than direct agricultural work. We developed a quantitative, active ingredient-specific algorithm for cumulative (adult, married lifetime) non-occupational pesticide exposure intensity for spouses of...
Generalized concentration addition model predicts glucocorticoid activity bioassay responses to environmentally detected receptor-ligand mixtures (JOURNAL)
Attached is a manuscript which includes a broad introduction and reasoning for the study, as well as a detailed study design, results and conclusions. The manuscript was written with the intent of submission to Toxicological Sciences for peer-review and publication. -----(ABSTRAC...
Agrochemical Mixtures and Amphibians: The Combined Effects of Pesticides and Fertilizer on Stress, Acetylcholinesterase Activity, and Bioaccumulation in a Terrestrial Environment (JOURNAL)
Tank mixtures are popular within the agricultural community because they are time‐ and cost‐effective, but field applications leave nontarget organisms at risk of exposure. We explored the effects of a common herbicide (atrazine and alachlor) and fertilizer (urea) tan...
Advancements in mitigating interference in quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for microbial water quality monitoring (JOURNAL)
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)1 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria included an Enterococcus spp. quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method as a supplemental indicator-method. In 2012, performance of qPCR for beach monitoring remained li...
Quantifying hydraulic and water quality uncertainty to inform sampling of drinking water distribution systems (JOURNAL)
Sampling of drinking water distribution systems is performed to satisfy regulatory requirements but also to respond to customer complaints or emergency situations. Water distribution system modeling techniques can be used to plan and inform sampling strategies; however, a high de...
A Measurement‐Model Fusion Approach for Improved Wet Deposition Maps and Trends (JOURNAL)
Air quality models provide spatial fields of wet deposition (WD) and dry deposition that explicitly account for the transport and transformation of emissions from thousands of sources. However, many sources of uncertainty in the air quality model including errors in emissions and...
Advances in Air Quality Modeling (JOURNAL)
Air quality modeling is of critical importance to inform regulatory and planning activities under the U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA). Due to limitations in spatial and temporal coverage of ambient monitoring networks, air quality models are better able to characterize the ambient impac...
Spatial and temporal dynamics of a freshwater eukaryotic plankton community revealed via 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding (JOURNAL)
DNA metabarcoding is a sophisticated molecular tool that can enhance biological surveys of freshwater plankton communities by providing broader taxonomic coverage and, for certain groups, higher taxonomic resolution compared to morphological methods. We conducted 18S rRNA gene me...
High-throughput environmental DNA analysis informs a biological assessment of an urban stream (JOURNAL)
There is growing interest in the use of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding approaches to aid biological assessments and monitoring of waterbodies. While biodiversity measured by morphology and by DNA often has been found correlated, few studies have compared DNA data to established ...
Development of a Rapid Viability Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detection of Yersinia pestis in Water (JOURNAL)
Due to the occurrence of natural plague outbreaks and its historical usage as a biological weapon, Yersinia pestis is considered one of the high-priority biological threat agents. It can remain viable in certain environments including water for more than 100 days. The Rapid Viabi...
A Conflicted Tale of Two Novel AR Antagonists In vitro and In vivo: Pyrifluquinazon versus Bisphenol C. (JOURNAL)
Chemicals that disrupt androgen receptor function during sexual differentiation in utero induce a cascade of adverse effects on F1 male reproductive development including reduced AGD, retained nipples, agenesis of androgen-dependent organs and reproductive tract malformations. ...
Adverse maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) from oral gestational exposure in Sprague Dawley rats (JOURNAL)
ABSTRACT Background: GenX (CAS: 62037-80-3) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) chemical class and a high-profile contaminant of emerging concern. Recent environmental monitoring efforts have identified elevated levels of GenX in surface water, air, and...
A Geospatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability Reduction by Freshwater Wetlands – A Benefit Indicators Approach (JOURNAL)
Flooding is among the most common and costly natural disasters in the United States. It has been on the rise as flood mitigating habitats are lost, development places more people and infrastructure potentially at risk, and changing rainfall results in altered flood frequency. Acr...
Contaminants in bald eagles of the upper Midwestern U.S.: A framework for prioritizing future research based on in-vitro bioassays (JOURNAL)
Various organic contaminants (OCs) are present in aquatic environments with the potential to bioaccumulate to higher trophic levels. Because of their mainly piscivorous diet, bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) can provide information regarding the bioaccumulation of OCs from ...
Development of a Research Strategy for Integrated Technology-Based Toxicological and Chemical Evaluation of Complex Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products (DBP) (JOURNAL)
Chemical disinfection of water is a major public health triumph of the 20th century. Dramatic decreases in both morbidity and mortality of waterborne diseases are a direct result of water disinfection. With these important public health benefits comes low-level, chronic exposure ...
Using Dose Addition to Estimate Cumulative Risks from Exposures to Multiple Chemicals (JOURNAL)
The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...
Cumulative Risk Assessment for Quantitative Response Data (JOURNAL)
The Relative Potency Factor approach (RPF) is used to normalize and combine different toxic potencies among a group of chemicals selected for cumulative risk assessment. The RPF method assumes that the slopes of the dose-response functions are all equal; but this method depends o...
Review of Decontamination Techniques for the Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis and Other Spore-Forming Bacteria Associated with Building or Outdoor Materials (JOURNAL)
Although the military has been developing decontamination methods for their purposes for decades, research conducted or funded by nondefense government agencies with a focus on the decontamination of civilian facilities had been minimal prior to 2001. That changed following the i...
Acute Peat Smoke Inhalation Sensitizes Rats to the Postprandial Cardiometabolic Effects of a High Fat Oral Load (JOURNAL)
Wildland fire emissions cause adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, yet controlled exposure studies to characterize health impacts of specific biomass sources have been complicated by the often latent effects of air pollution. The aim of this study was to determine if postprandial r...
Propagation of Giardia duodenalis cysts in immunosuppressed CF-1 mice (JOURNAL)
This study developed and evaluated Giardia duodenalis cyst propagation using a dexamethasone immunosuppressed CF-1 mouse model as an alternative to a previously described Mongolian gerbil model. The CF-1 mouse model shed significantly more cysts per animal during a 16–18&th...
Gas-Phase Detection of Fluorotelomer Alcohols and Other Oxygenated Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (JOURNAL)
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are incorporated into an ever-increasing number of modern products and inevitably enter the environment and ultimately human bodies. Herein, we show that chemical ionization mass spectrometry with iodide reagent ion chemistry is a useful...
Non-targeted GC/MS analysis of exhaled breath samples: Exploring human biomarkers of exogenous exposure and endogenous response from professional firefighting activity (JOURNAL)
A non-targeted analysis workflow was applied to analyze exhaled breath samples collected from firefighters pre- and post-structural fire suppression. Breath samples from firefighters functioning in attack and search positions were examined for target and non-target compounds in a...
Lightning NOx Emissions and the Implications for Surface Air Quality over the Contiguous United States (JOURNAL)
As one of the largest sources of natural NOX, it is estimated that lightning-induced NOX (LNOX) contributes 10-15% of the total global NOX emissions budget. Lightning activity exhibits strong spatial and temporal variations, and consequently so does the tropospheric distribution ...