||Calculating the pH of Calcium Carbonate Saturation.
Pisigan, R. A. ;
Singley, J. E. ;
||Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., Gainesville, FL. ;Montgomery (James M.), Inc., Gainesville, FL.;Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab.
Distribution systems ;
Water distribution ;
Water pollution ;
Calcium carbonates ;
Mathematical models ;
Potable water ;
Chemical equilibrium ;
Statistical analysis ;
Computer programming ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
||Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerized calculation of pH subs and takes into account ionic speciation and an activity correction factor. Different methods of determining pH subs of 155 water samples were compared with the use of the Langelier equation, the Larson-Buswell formula, the two pH subs equations derived in the study, two mathematical models obtained from multivariate analysis, the WATSPEC2 computer program, and Caldwell-Lawrence diagrams.
||Prepared in cooperation with Montgomery (James M.), Inc., Gainesville, FL. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab.
||Pub. in Jnl. American Water Works Association 77, n10 p83-91 Oct 85.
|NTIS Title Notes
||Reprint: Calculating the pH of Calcium Carbonate Saturation.
|PUB Date Free Form
||13B; 13K; 7D; 9B; 68D; 71G; 50B; 99A
||Not available NTIS