||Selection of Nutrients to Enhance Biodegradation for the Remediation of Oil Spilled on Beaches.
Safferman., S. I. ;
||Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.
Oil spills ;
Biological treatment ;
Land pollution control ;
Remedial action ;
Experimental design ;
Water pollution abatement ;
Tidal waters ;
Oil pollution ;
Alaskan Oil Spill EPA Bioremediation Project ;
Exxon Valdez ;
Aldehyde diurea/butyr ;
Slow release chemicals
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
||Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the fate of fertilizers proposed for application to the Alaska shoreline in support of the Alaskan Oil Spill EPA Bioremediation Project. Fertilizer application is theorized to provide indigenous organisms with nutrients that appear to be limited on ocean beaches. The experiments were developed strictly to test the durability, release rates, and application procedures of a variety of fertilizer types. The effects of tidal movement on a beach was simulated by two separate conditions, static and dynamic. The static condition represented periods when the beach material was under water and turbulence was at a minimum. This condition was simulated in the laboratory by submerging the nutrient in a beaker of simulated sea water (with or without beach material depending on the nutrients). These experiments ran continuously over a 3-month period with water exchanges in accordance with a planned schedule. Nutrient concentrations were measured in the exchanged water. Dynamic conditions represented the forces on beach material as the water moved from the low to high tide and then back to the low tide. In the laboratory, the condition was simulated by applying the nutrients to beach material, which was piled in one end of a long narrow trayplaced on a rocker table. When the rocker table was operating and sufficient quantities of sea water had been added to cover the beach material (in the rocker table's low position, a gentle sloshing of the water over the materials resulted. These experiments generally lasted 1 to 2 hours during which time liquid samples were collected for nutrient analyses. Durability of the fertilizers was measured by visual observation and freeze/thaw determinations. The experimental setup was economical and performed well. The fertilizer most suited for field trial was found to be isobutyraldehyde diurea briquettes, which produced a slow continuous release of nutrients was found.
||Presented at the 1991 International Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behaviour, Control, Cleanup), San Diego, CA., March 4-7, 1991. Portions of this document are not fully legible.
||Reprint: Selection of Nutrients to Enhance Biodegradation for the Remediation of Oil Spilled on Beaches.
||68; 68D; 57
||PC A02/MF A01