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OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Removing Trihalomethanes from Drinking Water - An Overview of Treatment Techniques.
Author Symons, James M. ; Stevens, Alan A. ; Clark, Robert M. ; Geldreich, Edwin E. ; Love, Jr, O. Thomas ;
CORP Author Municipal Environmental Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.
Year Published 1981
Report Number EPA-600/J-80-360;
Stock Number PB82-132572
Additional Subjects Water treatment ; Halogen organic compounds ; Potable water ; Disinfection ; Chloroform ; Bromoform ; Regulations ; Oxidation ; Ozonation ; Chlorine oxides ; Activated carbon treatment ; Coagulation ; Filtration ; Precipitation(Chemistry) ; Adsorption ; Reprints ; Methane/bromo-dichloro ; Methane/dibromo-chloro ; Granular activated carbon
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB82-132572 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. 06/23/1988
Collation 12p
Abstract In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to amend the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations to include a maximum contaminant level of 0.10 mg/L tor total trihalomethanes. For trihalomethane removal, aeration - either by diffused-air or with towers - and adsorption - either by powdered activated carbon or granular activated carbon - is effective. The major disadvantage of this approach is that trihalomethane precursors are not removed by aeration. For trihalomethane precursor control, effective processes are: (1) oxidation by ozone or chlorine dioxide; (2) clarification by coagulation, settling and filtration, precipitative softening, or direct filtration; or (3) adsorption by powdered activated carbon or granular activated carbon. In addition, some modest removal or destruction of trihalomethane precursors can be achieved by oxidation with potassium permanganate lowering the pH, or moving the point of chlorination to the clarified water. Lowering of trihalomethane precursor concentrations has the additional advantage of reducing overall disinfectant demand, thereby reducing the possibility of the formation of all disinfection byproducts. Neither chlorine dioxide, nor ozone, nor chloramines produce trihalomethanes at significant concentrations when used alone as disinfectants. Furthermore, the cost of any of these unit processes is very low. The major disadvantage of using alternate disinfectants for trihalomethane control relates to the lack of any precursor removal.
Supplementary Notes Pub. in Water/Engineering and Management, 128, p50, 52, 53, 56, 61-64 Jul 81.
NTIS Title Notes Journal article.
Title Annotations Reprint: Removing Trihalomethanes from Drinking Water - An Overview of Treatment Techniques.
PUB Date Free Form 1981
Category Codes 13B; 68D; 50C
NTIS Prices PC A02/MF A01
Primary Description 600/14
Document Type NT
Cataloging Source NTIS/MT
Control Number 323808625
Origin NTIS
Type CAT