Section 303(d)(1)(C) of the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementing regulations direct each State to develop a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for each impaired water quality limited segment (WQLS) on the Section 303(d) list, taking into account seasonal variations and a protective margin of safety (MOS) to account for uncertainty. A TMDL reflects the total pollutant loading of the impairing substance a waterbody can receive and still meet water quality standards. TMDLs are established to achieve and maintain water quality standards. A water quality standard is the combination of a designated use for a particular body of water and the water quality criteria designed to protect that use. Designated uses include activities such as swimming, drinking water supply, and shellfish propagation and harvest. Water quality criteria consist of narrative statements and numeric values designed to protect the designated uses. Criteria may differ among waters with different designated uses. Fecal coliform are found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Few fecal coliform are pathogenic; however, the presence of elevated levels of fecal coliform in shellfish waters indicates recent sources of pollution. Some common waterborne diseases associated with the consumption of raw clams and oysters harvested from polluted water include viral and bacterial gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. Fecal coliform may occur in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources.