Cost-effective structural inspection can be an important component of effective condition assessment and asset management of water conveyance infrastructure. Structural inspection involves collecting data about meta-stable and/or transient indicators of the condition of the pipe. The data are used as inputs for estimating the current and future condition of the pipe. Cost-effective structural inspection can provide value to utilities in three primary ways. First, it can help the utility prevent catastrophic failures in their deteriorating water mains, which they cannot afford to replace at present. Secondly, it can help the utility reduce the amount perceived to need replacement, which may enable them to replace only the pipes that are structurally deteriorated to the point that their probability of failure is unacceptable. Finally, it may help the utility reduce the rate of deterioration of its aging water mains. This could enable the utility to more promptly identify pipes that are deteriorating at an accelerated rate, which could lead the utility to mitigate the conditions causing accelerated deterioration with action (e.g., leak repair, retrofit cathodic protection, and/or spot rehabilitation). These benefits provided by structural inspection technologies are important for utilities that must strategically select water mains for replacement since they cannot afford to replace their entire aging infrastructure. No references are readily available outlining how much utilities would be willing to pay for condition assessment versus replacing costs, but rehabilitation and maintenance activities are typically cheaper than replacement and can extend the asset life for years before replacement is needed (Baird, 2010). These technologies can be improved by identifying failure modes and indicators; improving technology performance (e.g., efficiency of detecting critical flaws; better spatial, temporal, and indicator coverage); and reducing cost (e.g., mobilization/demobilization; pipe preparation/access; data collection; data analysis; speed; and share cost (i.e., use same data or platform or data transmission system)). Scientific and engineering research is being conducted to develop and improve these technologies and to accelerate commercial implementation; portions of the development work are funded in part by government and industry associations. Unfortunately, some developments are unsuccessful because they are not feasible for water pipelines, do not properly address the structural integrity issue, or are not as cost effective as competing structural inspection methods.