Given the excellence of the 'Critical Review of Toxic Air Pollutants', the discussion will expand on a few points raised by Dr. Goldstein rather than critique his comments. Because Dr. Goldstein and the other discussants have addressed carcinogenesis issues so well, the author will limit her comments to noncarcinogenic endpoints. Focus is placed on health research elements which feed into risk assessment using the basic premise that a risk assessment can be no better than the data being assessed. The discussion will be organized according to the elements of research risk assessment and risk management described by Dr. Goldstein and the National Academy of Sciences panel. Dr. Goldstein's convention of TAP, standing for Toxic Air Pollutants, will be used.