Technologies for cleaning up hazardous wastes are often expensive, inappropriate for the site, or ineffective in handling complex mixtures of pollutants. Some of the most promising of the new technologies for solving hazardous waste problems involve the use of biological treatment systems. Because biological treatments appear to offer solutions to problems associated with conventional technologies, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Biosystems Technology Development Program, which is designed to anticipate rapidly increasing research needs that can be applied to our nation's enormous waste management problems. In April 1991, ORD hosted a Conference on Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes in Falls Church, Virginia, to discuss recent achievements of the Biosystems Technology Development Program and research necessary to bring bioremediation into more widespread use. The document outlines the program, its objectives, and accomplishments.