Treatment and thermal destruction are becoming the most viable methods for disposing of hazardous wastes. Wastes can be destroyed through a variety of treatment methods and in incinerators, boilers, kilns, and other high temperature industrial processes. The destruction of these materials is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended. The Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducts research to help establish and technically defend regulations governing the destruction of hazardous materials. The program is conducted at EPA-owned facilities and by Agency contractors. It is highly coordinated with other researchers. These programs will result in regulation, permitting, and compliance actions by the Agency to ensure continued, reliable operation of such facilities and the public acceptance of the location and operation of these facilities. A description of the EPA research programs and how they interact with private sector industry is provided.