Introduction -- Machine vision online measurements -- NIR spectroscopy detection -- Hyperspectral imaging detection -- Electronic nose measurements -- Colorimetric sensors measurement -- Acoustic measurements -- Sensor fusion measurement -- Other nondestructive measurement technologies. This book is composed of 8 chapters, each focusing on a major non-destructive technique, including optical, acoustic and biological methods. The content of each chapter is based on the author's studies and current research developments. The book is aimed at graduate students, senior undergraduate students, and researchers in academia and industry. It will be particularly interesting for researchers in the fields of food, agricultural engineering, biotechnology and applied mathematics. It will also serve as a useful reference source for people working in the design and manufacture of non-destructive devices for food and agricultural products.