Oleylamine has been tested for potential toxic effects, and a summary of these data is presented. Human clinical trials include preliminary tests of the hydrofluoride salt for efficacy as an anti-caries agent; no adverse effects were noted after acute and chronic low-dose human exposure. Long-term manufacture and use of oleylamine has shown no adverse human effects. Dermal exposure of rabbits indicates it is corrosive to skin (and probably eyes). The hydrofluoride salt was more toxic to orally-exposed pregnant mice than was oleylamine. Tallowamine, structurally related to oleylamine, was moderately toxic to rats (oral LD50 = 2000 mg/kg). Tests with several strains of rats and mice exposed intraperitoneally confirm the relatively higher toxicity of the hydrofluoride salt as compared to oleylamine. Inflammation of the G.I. tract was the only adverse effect noted in tests with rats fed 3000 ppm of octadecylamine for 209 days and in dogs fed 15 mg/kg/day for 1 year. No effects were noted in rats fed 500 ppm for 2 years. No mutagenicity has been shown in Ames tests with related chemical forms. Oral developmental studies with mice exposed to oleylamine showed maternal toxicity at exposure levels up to 3200 mg/kg, but no teratogenicity was noted. Testswith the hydroflouride salt led to maternal toxicity at 800 mg/kg, but did not induce any malformations. No reproductive effects have been seen in reproductive studies with rats administered oral doses of from 1 to 30 mg/kg/day of the fluoride salt. No adverse fetal effects were seen in rats dermally exposed to levels high enough to cause local irritation to the dams.