Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog
RECORD NUMBER: 216 OF 258
|OLS Field Name||OLS Field Data|
|Main Title||Sources and behavior of heavy metals in wastewater and sludges|
|Author||Vigon, B. W. ; Craig, R. A. ; Frazier., N. A.|
|CORP Author||Battelle Columbus Labs., Ohio.;Municipal Environmental Research Lab., Cincinnati, Ohio.|
|Publisher||U.S. Environmental Agency/Wastewater Res. Div.,|
|Report Number||EPA-600/2-77-070 ; PB 265 006; EPA-68-03-1177|
|Stock Number||PB-265 006|
|Additional Subjects||Sludge disposal ; Metals ; Farms ; Water pollution ; Soils ; Copper ; Zinc ; Nickel ; Cadmium ; Cobalt ; Chromium ; Toxic tolerances ; Nutrients ; Farm crops ; Lead(Metal) ; Mercury(Metal) ; Soil fertility ; Fertilizers ; Ground water ; Sources ; Reviews ; Heavy metals ; Organic loadings ; Land disposal|
A critical evaluation has been made of the literature regarding the sources of heavy metals in sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Residential loadings of heavy metals as a percentage of total metal loads are highly variable with respect to both the particular element under consideration and the geographic area. Only rarely is the percentage contribution of any metal attributable to residential sources greater than one-half the total. The disagreement between studies seems to indicate that the available information concerning the residential loading estimates may be biased due to the inclusion of unsurveyed industrial discharges. The sludge content of heavy metals is frequently correlated with industrial density, but the many confounding variables make a general statement regarding this relationship impossible. Diffuse sources such as laundries, street runoff and small family-owned operations may contribute to the discharges from a supposedly residential area.
March 1977. PB 265 006.