||Statistical Issues in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.
Stevens, D. L. ;
Olsen., A. R. ;
||ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.;Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Environmental monitoring ;
Statistical analysis ;
Statistical quality control ;
Probability theory ;
US EPA ;
EMAP(Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program)
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
There are two classes of statistical issues: firm issues amenable to problem statement and technical resolution and soft issues that have qualitative dimensions and ideological implications. Firm issues are easy: defining and stating the problem is much of the solution. The soft issues are difficult: the problems are not easily stated, there may be no clear-cut answer, yet the approach taken can have profound impacts on the mode of operation. Environmental monitoring and assessment contains both kinds of issues. The paper briefly identifies some of the more pressing firm issues that have arisen in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a nation-wide program designed to monitor national ecological resources. Issues that are amenable to technical solution include trade-offs between status estimation and change/trend detection, interplay between probability sampling and spatial statistics, and the effects of three components on variation on assessment of population condition. Two specific issues that have qualitative aspects are discussed. The discussions concentrate on the statistical facets of what to monitor in the environment and how to monitor it.