||Assessment of three technologies for the treatment of cooling tower blowdown /
Houle, E. H. ;
Rogers, A. N. ;
Weekes, M. C. ;
May, S. C. ;
Mast, V. C. der ;
||Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA.;Industrial Environmental Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.
|| U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory ; National Technical Information Service [distributor,
Cooling towers--United States. ;
Water--Purification--Reverse osmosis process. ;
Thermal pollution ;
Water pollution control ;
Cooling towers ;
Electric power plants ;
Wind tunnels ;
Performance evaluation ;
Process charting ;
Economic analysis ;
Vapor compression distillation ;
Reverse osmosis ;
Vertical tube foaming evaporation ;
Wet methods ;
Dry methods ;
Vertical tube evaporation
||Region 4 Library/Atlanta,GA
||Research Triangle Park Library/RTP, NC
||Region 9 Library/San Francisco,CA
||Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
||86 p. in various pagings : ill. ; 28 cm.
The report gives results of analyses of three methods for treating cooling tower blowdown: vapor compression evaporation (VCE), reverse osmosis (RO), and vertical tube foaming evaporation (VTFE). The two evaporative processes produce pure water (approximately 10 ppm dissolved solids). RO produces water of lower purity (about 500 ppm) but adequate for many uses in the power plant or for return to the cooling tower. VCE has been used successfully in commercial power plants; the evaporative processes have no plants in operation on cooling tower blowdown. Plant investment is strongly influenced by the cost of lined ponds required to evaporate the treatment plant blowdown and store the residual salts. Consequently, the RO plant investment is almost in the range of that of VTFE and VCE plants. In total capital plus operating costs, VTFE has a distinct advantage over RO and VCE because its source of energy is waste heat to which a zero value has been assigned. The VTFE economics is based on vertical tube evaporator experience (without adding surfactant). If field pilot tests substantiate previous laboratory results, the economics of the VTFE may prove to be even more favorable.
"Bechtel National, Inc." "September 1979." Includes bibliographical references. "Contract no. 68-02-2616, task no. 8 program element no. INE624A."