A reference work and review of both infectious and noninfectious diseases of commercial penaeid shrimps of the Gulf and South Atlantic region of the United States is presented. Disease is second only to predation and periodic physical catastrophes in limiting numbers of penaeid shrimps in nature and second only to nutritional and reproductive requirements in limiting aquacultural successes with penaeid shrimps. Noninfectious disease agents in penaeid shrimps are chemical pollutants, heavy metals, and environmental stresses. Organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides all have adverse effects in penaeids. Fractions of petroleum, particularly the naphthalenes are very toxic to shrimp. Little other work has been done on the effects of petroleum on penaeid shrimps. Cadmium causes black gills in shrimp by killing gill cells. Mercury is accumulated by penaeids and may interfere with their osmoregulatory abilities. Many chemotherapeutic chemicals used routinely in treatment of fish diseases are toxic to shrimp at certain determined concentrations. Spontaneous pathoses found are a benign tumor, muscle necrosis, and gas bubble disease. Shell disease is discussed from points of view of possible causes. A syndrome of broken backs is reported in penaeid shrimps for the first time. An overview is presented for general needs in penaeid shrimp health research.