Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


Main Title Toxicological review of nitrobenzene (CAS No. 98-95-3) : in support of summary information on the integrated risk information system (IRIS) /
CORP Author Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. National Center for Environmental Assessment.
Publisher U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Year Published 2009
Report Number EPA/635/R-08/004F
Stock Number PB2009-108276
Subjects Nitrobenzene--Toxicology ; Nitrobenzene--Dose-response relationship ; Nitrobenzene--Risk assessment ; Nitrobenzene--toxicity ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Additional Subjects Nitrobenzene ; Toxicological review ; Integrated Risk Information System ; Carcinogenicity assessment ; Hazard potential ; Oral exposure ; Inhalation exposure ; Integrated Risk Information system (IRIS)
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB2009-108276 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation 1 online resource ([250] p.) : ill. (some col.)
This document presents background information and justification for the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of nitrobenzene. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogenicity assessment. The RfD and RfC, if derived, provide quantitative information for use in risk assessments for health effects known or assumed to be produced through a nonlinear (presumed threshold) mode of action. The RfD (expressed in units of mg/kg-day) is defined as an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. The inhalation RfC (expressed in units of mg/m3) is analogous to the oral RfD, but provides a continuous inhalation exposure estimate. The inhalation RfC considers toxic effects for both the respiratory system (portal of entry) and for effects peripheral to the respiratory system (extrarespiratory or systemic effects). Reference values are generally derived for chronic exposures (up to a lifetime), but may also be derived for acute (.24 hours), short-term (>24 hours up to 30 days), and subchronic (>30 days up to 10% of lifetime) exposure durations, all of which are derived based on an assumption of continuous exposure throughout the duration specified. Unless specified otherwise, the RfD and RfC are derived for chronic exposure duration. The carcinogenicity assessment provides information on the carcinogenic hazard potential of the substance in question and quantitative estimates of risk from oral and inhalation exposure may be derived. The information includes a weight-of-evidence judgment of the likelihood that the agent is a human carcinogen and the conditions under which the carcinogenic effects may be expressed. Quantitative risk estimates may be derived from the application of a low-dose extrapolation procedure. If derived, the oral slope factor is a plausible upper bound on the estimate of risk per mg/kg-day of oral exposure. Similarly, an inhalation unit risk is a plausible upper bound on the estimate of risk per Eg/m3 air breathed.
Title from title screen (viewed Feb. 12, 2009). "January 2009." "EPA/635/R-08/004F." Includes bibliographical references (p. 143-156).