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Nitrobenzene Quickview (CASRN 98-95-3)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

For definitions of terms in the IRIS Web site, refer to the IRIS Glossary.

Status of Data for Nitrobenzene

File First On-Line: 01/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 02/06/2009

Category (section)
Status
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment On-line 02/06/2009
Inhalation RfC Assessment On-line 02/06/2009
Carcinogenicity Assessment On-line 02/06/2009
Synonyms
  • 98-95-3
  • Benzene, nitro-
  • Essence of Mirbane
  • Essence of Myrbane
  • Mirbane oil
  • NCI-c60082
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Nitrobenzol
  • Oil of Mirbane
  • Oil of Myrbane
Nitrobenzene Source Documents
Revision History
Date Section Description
02/06/2009 I., II. Revised the RfD; added an RfC; revised the cancer assessment.
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfD
Increased methemoglobin levels BMDL (1SD): 1.8 mg/kg-day 1000 2 x10-3 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfC
Bronchiolization of the alveoli and olfactory degeneration BMCL10 (HEC): 0.26 mg/m3 30 9x10-3 mg/m3

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Inhalation RfC was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (Combined route)
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), nitrobenzene is classified as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans" by any route of exposure.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

  • Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

Inhalation Unit Risk(s)
Extrapolation Method
4 x10-5 per µg/m3 Multistage model with linear extrapolation from the POD (LEC10).

Inhalation Concentrations at Specified Risk Levels

Risk Level
Concentration
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 2.5 µg/m3
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 0.25 µg/m3
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 0.025 µg/m3

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