The objective of this document is to present a detailed technical guidance document for use by spill responders for the bioremediation of marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands contaminated with oil and oil products. Technical personnel who are responsible for designing and operating field bioremediation processes as well as consultants and equipment manufacturers will also find it useful. This manual presents a rational approach for the design of bioremediation processes pertinent to cleanup of oil-contaminated marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands. This document evaluates current practices and state-of-the-art research results pertaining to bioremediation of hydrocarbon contamination relative to types and amounts of amendments used, frequency of application, assessment of the extent of bioremediation, sampling, and analysis. The scope of the document is limited to marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands because of definitive results from recently completed, EPA-sponsored field studies. The final product is presented in a report form that is understandable by responders, on-scene coordinators, and remediation specialists. This report includes a thorough review and critique of the literature and theories pertinent to oil biodegradation, nutrient dynamics in shorelines, and analytical chemistry of oil and remediation nutrients. A planning approach to site identification, evaluation, and selection along with information on field investigations is also presented. The manual includes examples of bioremediation options and case studies of bioremediation applied to marine shorelines and freshwater wetland environments. The contents of this document are arranged in a logical sequence first to provide basic information for the evaluation of bioremediation as a spill response option followed by guidelines for application that includes methods to monitor its effectiveness.