The determination that a chemical poses a reproductive risk to man typically relies upon fertility studies using rodents. However, fertility in rodents is often difficult to disrupt and more sensitive indicators of reproductive function should be included in the risk assessment process. The present discussion compares the sensitivity of fertility to other endpoints following exposure to known reproductive toxicants. In the studies rats were dosed from weaning through puberty, gestation, and lactation. The reproductive function of the male, the female, and the offspring was assessed. The effects of methoxychlor, carbendazim (MBC), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and lindane are discussed and compared to fertility. The data from the studies indicate that no single endpoint will consistently be the most sensitive indicator of reproductive toxicity. Studies must include a number of well validated endpoints that provide a comprehensive assessment of the entire reproductive system of the male and female.