Section 303(d)(1)(C) of the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementing regulations direct each State to develop a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for each impaired water quality limited segment (WQLS) on the Section 303(d) list, taking into account seasonal variations and a protective margin of safety (MOS) to account for uncertainty. A TMDL reflects the total pollutant loading of the impairing substance a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards. TMDLs are established to achieve and maintain water quality standards. A water quality standard is the combination of a designated use for a particular body of water and the water quality criteria designed to protect that use. Designated uses include activities such as swimming, drinking water supply, and shellfish propagation and harvest. Water quality criteria consist of narrative statements and numeric values designed to protect the designated uses. Criteria may differ among waters with different designated uses.