I Introduction -- II Summary and conclusions -- Wastewater pollution control practices -- Hazardous and toxic waste handling -- Offsite pollutant movement -- Toxicity and health effects -- III Plant production and waste disposal practices -- Previous waste disposal practices -- Present waste disposal practices -- Groundwater monitoring wells -- IV Monitoring procedures and results -- V Offsite pollutant movement -- Surface water -- Groundwater -- Air -- VI Toxicity and health effects of identified pollutants -- Liquid/soil sample pollutants -- Air sample pollutants -- References -- Appendices -- A Sample analysis -- B Mutagen assay methods and results -- C Toxicity and health effects Fike Chemicals, Inc. in Nitro, West Virginia, is a small-volume chemical manufacturing firm specializing in the development of new chemicals, speciality chemicals, byproduct recovery and custom manufacturing. Many of the chemicals are produced only as required and all are batch formulated. Production varies from a few hundred to about one million kilograms (2 x 10p6s lb)/year for individual products. Waste disposal has been accomplished by biological stabilization of "treatable" waste streams, evaporation/percolation lagoons for "non-treatable" waste streams and on-site burial for other wastes. During October 3 through 7, 1977, at the request of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region III, National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) personnel investigated Fike Chemicals, Inc. (Fike), Coastal Tank Lines, and the jointly owned Cooperative Sewage Treatment, Inc. (CST) facilities. The primary objectives of that study were to identify and quantify all toxic chemicals discharged to the Kanawha River from these plants. These data were also used to determine compliance with the NPDES permit for the CST facility. As a result of the 1977 survey findings and those of other regulatory investigators, the State entered into a consent decree with Fike on September 12, 1978. Coastal Tank Lines sold their interest in the CST to Fike shortly before this date. The consent decree and subsequently issued permits required: 1. In-plant segregation of various waste streams; 2. CST modifications; 3. Prohibition of priority pollutant discharges from the CST; and 4. Prohibition of discharges to existing toxic waste disposal lagoons until rehabilitation is effected. Neither the consent decree nor the permits address the disposal and/or burial of hazardous wastes on plant grounds. On August 28,1979, EPA Region III requested NEIC to again investigate the Fike and CST plants to assess progress toward pollution control and abatement. Also, the Region wanted an evaluation of possible hazards and potential environmental impacts posed by these plants. At the time of this request, the consent decreee regarding wastewater discharges and liquid waste disposal practices was still in effect with expiration on October 31, 1979. During December 11 through 14, 1979, and on February 18, 1980, NEIC personnel investigated the Fike production and CST facilities to determine compliance with the applicable State and Federal regulations. The primary objectives were to evaluate: (a) waste disposal practices, (b) the potential for offsite hazards resulting from these disposal practices, and (c) possible environmental impacts. To accomplish these objectives, the NEIC investigation addressed: 1. Plant production; 2. Wastewater treatment; 3. Hazardous/toxic materials handling and disposal practices; 4. Onsite pollutant identification; 5. Avenues for offsite contaminant migration; and 6. Potential toxicity and health effects of identified pollutants.