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Main Title Benefits of maintaining a chlorine residual in water supply systems /
Author Snead, Michael C., ; Olivieri, Vincent P. ; Kruse, Cornelius W. ; Kawata, Kazuyoshi
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Snead, Michael C.
CORP Author Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. School of Hygiene and Public Health.;Municipal Environmental Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH. Wastewater Research Div.
Publisher Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Available through the National Technical Information Service.
Year Published 1980
Report Number EPA-600/2-80-010; EPA-R-804307; PB81110892
Stock Number PB81-110892
OCLC Number 13609990
Subjects Chlorine ; Water--Purification--Chlorination ; Drinking water--Contamination--United States ; Water--Microbiology ; Water--Bacteriology
Additional Subjects Potable water ; Chlorination ; Coliform bacteria ; Shigella ; Salmonella ; pH ; Temperature ; Concentration(Composition) ; Drinking water ; Water pollution control
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EHAM  TD747.S63 1980 Region 1 Library/Boston,MA 04/29/2016
EJBD  EPA 600-2-80-010 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 05/16/2016
ELBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-2-80-010 Received from HQ AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 10/04/2023
ELBD  EPA 600-2-80-010 AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 12/27/2002
ERAD  EPA 600/2-80-010 Region 9 Library/San Francisco,CA 10/01/2012
ESAD  EPA 600-2-80-010 Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA 03/23/2010
NTIS  PB81-110892 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation xiii, 175 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
The protection afforded the water consumer by the maintenance of a chlorine residual in water distribution systems was evaluated in laboratory holding tanks and reservoirs and existing municipal water distribution systems. In the laboratory studies, tap water, adjusted to the appropriate pH, temperature, and chlorine residual, was challenged with varying levels of autoclaved sewage seeded with Shigella, Salmonella coliforms, poliovirus 1, and f2 bacterial virus. Comparative survivals of these microorganisms were evaluated over two hour periods. As expected microbial inactivation was increased by lower pH, higher temperature, higher initial chlorine concentration, and lower sewage concentration. An initial free chlorine concentration was more effective than an equivalent initial combined chlorine residual. The maintenance of a free chlorine residual was found to be the single most effective measure for maintaining a low plate count in the distribution system. More than 6000 plate count isolates were studied and classified into functional groups based on seven biochemical characteristics.
Includes bibliographical references (pages 102-106). Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, submitted by the Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Division of Environmental Health Engineering, under grant no. Contract Number: R804307.