Wind-tunnel experiments and a theoretical model concerning the flow structure and pollutant diffusion over two-dimensional valleys of varying aspect ratio are described and compared. Three model valleys were used, having small, medium, and steep slopes. Measurements of mean and turbulent velocity fields were made upstream, within, and downwind of each of these valleys. Concentration distributions were measured downwind of tracer sources placed at an array of locations within each of the valleys. The data are displayed as maps of terrain amplification factors, defined as the ratios of maximum ground-level concentrations in the presence of the valleys to the maxima observed from sources of the same height located in flat terrain. Maps are also provided showing the distance to locations of the maximum ground-level concentrations. The concentration patterns are interpreted in terms of the detailed flow structure measured in the valleys. These data were also compared with results of a mathematical model for treating flow and dispersion over two-dimensional complex terrain. This model used the wind-tunnel measurements to generate mean flow fields and eddy diffusivities, and these were applied in the numerical solution of the diffusion equation. Measured concentration fields were predicted reasonably well by this model for the valley of small slope and somewhat less well for the valley of medium slope. Because flow separation was observed within the steepest valley, the model was not applied in this case.