||Lower Respiratory Tract Structure of Laboratory Animals and Humans: Dosimetry Implications.
Miller, F. J. ;
Mercer, R. R. ;
Crapo, J. D. ;
||Chemical Industry Inst. of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC. ;Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC. Center for Extrapolation Modelling.;Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC. Environmental Toxicology Div.
Respiratory system ;
Species diversity ;
Pulmonary alveoli ;
Drug administration routes ;
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Significant differences in lower respiratory tract structure exist both within species and among species at each level of anatomy. The effects of these various branching patterns on airflow distribution, gas uptake, and the deposition of particles have not been sufficiently studied to determine the extent to which branching patterns impart regional inhomogeneities or local variations in the deposition of inhaled material. We have been using three-dimensional reconstruction techniques to examine various aspects of lung structure. The new knowledge gained about lung structure and geometry applies to a number of areas. Among these are (a) examining lobar and path-specific deposition patterns for pharmaceutical aerosol distributions, (b) selecting critical sites for potential lung injury, and (c) establishing respiratory tract structure based criteria for the optimum design of pharmaceutical aerosols.