Low Temperature Combustion with Reduced PM and NOx Emissions, Achieved by n-Butanol in-Port Injected in an Omnivorous Diesel Engine

EPA Grant Number: SU835542
Title: Low Temperature Combustion with Reduced PM and NOx Emissions, Achieved by n-Butanol in-Port Injected in an Omnivorous Diesel Engine
Investigators: Soloiu, Valentin , Peavy, Wallace Luke , Rivero-Castillo, Alejandro , Branan, Kyle , Muinos, Martin , Whyte, Odari , Harp, Spencer
Current Investigators: Soloiu, Valentin , Harp, Spencer , Muinos, Martin , Simons, Emerald , Naes, Tyler , Gaubert, Remi , Moncada, Jose , Knowles, Aliyah
Institution: Georgia Southern University
EPA Project Officer: Hahn, Intaek
Phase: II
Project Period: August 15, 2013 through August 14, 2015
Project Amount: $90,000
RFA: P3 Awards: A National Student Design Competition for Sustainability Focusing on People, Prosperity and the Planet - Phase 2 (2013) Recipients Lists
Research Category: Pollution Prevention/Sustainable Development , P3 Challenge Area - Air Quality , P3 Challenge Area - Chemical Safety , P3 Awards , Sustainable and Healthy Communities


To develop a new engine technology able to reduce drastically and concomitantly the engine NOx and soot by the n-butanol port-fuel injection (PFI) or direct injection of butanol blends coupled with the direct injection of cotton seed biodiesel. The purpose of the technology is to replace the diesel fuel, reducing the emissions and promoting biofuels for transportation and automotive industries with the scope of alleviating the impact of these industries on the global climate.


In the First Stage I of this project, it was found that PCCI and LTC operation with n-Butanol and cotton seeds biodiesel while very capable to concomitantly reduce soot and NOx resulted in higher CO and HC emissions, a disadvantage primarily due to partially combusted fuel escaping the premixed burn process from over-lean areas in the combustion chamber. In Phase II the intake manifold will be heated to vaporize completely the butanol in the intake, will build an improved manifold injection strategy (smaller injector and improved timing) correlated with the valves’ timing to avoid the passage of butanol vapors directly from intake into the exhaust manifold, and an EGR and supercharging strategy for further widening the LTC range with soot-NOx reduction. We will evaluate the influence of the biofuels’ vaporization curve, oxidation, heat release, and lower heating value by thermo-gravity analysis/differential thermo-analysis to determine how changes may affect combustion and control strategies for engine optimization. Spray development and Sauter Mean Diameter for the fuels and binary mixtures will be evaluated using a He-Ne Mie scattering laser in GSU Combustion laboratory. Complex maps of the engine operation will be built: relative air fuel ratio, bsfc, EGR, versus speed-imep.

Expected Results:

Experimental investigation will define the dual fuel injection strategies, intake air thermodynamics values (heated manifold) and fuel blends properties in LD (light duty) diesel engine. Experiments will define the best ratio of stratified n-Butanol / DI cotton seed biodiesel fueled diesel engine (binary mixtures in direct injection mode) with strategies modifying the ignition delay and optimized heat release rate. We will compare mass burnt results from simulation vs. experimental engine and quantify mixtures variables affecting details of heat release; injection and ignition timing. Bi-component fuel vaporization and mixture formation applied to study combustion regimes, including dual-fuel and biodiesel combustion under a range of injection pressures, EGR and supercharging pressure. Phase II of research will reduce soot and the HC and CO emissions, by 50%.

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this project: View all 17 publications for this project

Journal Articles:

Journal Articles have been submitted on this project: View all 2 journal articles for this project

Supplemental Keywords:

Low Temperature Combustion, LTC, omnivorous engine, n-butanol, energy conservation, alternative energy source, renewable energy, fuel efficiency, renewable fuel, emission control technologies, design for the environment, environmental education, clean air,

Relevant Websites:

Phase 1 Abstract

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 2014
  • Final Report

  • P3 Phase I:

    Low Temperature Combustion with Reduced PM and NOx Emissions, Achieved by n-Butanol in-Port Injected in an Omnivorous Diesel Engine  | Final Report