CASRN 7440-43-9 | DTXSID1023940

Noncancer Assessment

Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K) Last Updated: 10/01/1989

System RfD (mg/kg-day) Basis PoD Composite UF Confidence
Urinary 5 x 10-4
Significant proteinuria NOAEL : 5 x 10-3
10 High
Urinary 1 x 10-3
Significant proteinuria NOAEL : 1 x 10-2
10 High


Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.


Cancer Assessment

Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K) Last Updated: 03/31/1987

WOE Characterization Framework for WOE Characterization
B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986)
  • Limited evidence from occupational epidemiologic studies of cadmium is consistent across investigators and study populations. There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in rats and mice by inhalation and intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Seven studies in rats and mice wherein cadmium salts (acetate, sulfate, chloride) were administered orally have shown no evidence of carcinogenic response.
  • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)

Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)

Inhalation Unit Risk: 1.8 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
Extrapolation Method: Two stage; only first affected by exposure; extra risk
Tumor site(s): Respiratory
Tumor type(s): Lung, trachea, bronchus cancer deaths (Thun et al., 1985)

Additional EPA toxicity information may be available by visiting the following sites:

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