- IRIS Summary (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)
Reference Dose for Oral Exposure (RfD) (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)
last updated: 10/01/1989
|System||RfD (mg/kg-day)||Basis||PoD||Composite UF||Confidence|
5 x 10-4
: 5 x 10-3
1 x 10-3
: 1 x 10-2
Reference Concentration for Inhalation Exposure (RfC) (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)
Not assessed under the IRIS Program.
Weight of Evidence for Cancer (PDF) (13 pp, 118 K)
last updated: 03/31/1987
|WOE Characterization||Framework for WOE Characterization|
|B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans)||Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986)|
- Limited evidence from occupational epidemiologic studies of cadmium is consistent across investigators and study populations. There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in rats and mice by inhalation and intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Seven studies in rats and mice wherein cadmium salts (acetate, sulfate, chloride) were administered orally have shown no evidence of carcinogenic response.
- This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative.
Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.
Inhalation Unit Risk:
1.8 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
Extrapolation Method: Two stage; only first affected by exposure; extra risk
Tumor site(s): Respiratory
Tumor type(s): Lung, trachea, bronchus cancer deaths (Thun et al., 1985)
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