IRIS Toxicological Review of Cadmium and Compounds (External Review Draft)
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The critical effect proposed for both the oral RfD and inhalation RfC is renal dysfunction as judged by minimal proteinuria/enzymuria. This critical effect is evidenced from several cross-sectional population studies and is best supported by the CadmiBel population study of Buchet et al. (Lancet 336, 1990, 699). A toxicokinetic model was used with the data in this study to calculate both a daily oral intake and a continuous air concentration of cadmium that would result in a 10% occurrence of minimal enzymuria (the critical effect) in the population at the age of 70. A representative level of dietary cadmium intake was integrated into the toxicokinetic model. The net oral intake (model - diet) at 0.7 ug/kg-day (7E-4 mg/kg-day) was designated the oral RfD. The modeled concentration of cadmium inhaled concomitant with this same representative dietary intake at 0. 65 ug/m3 (7E-4 mg/m3) was designated the inhalation RfC.
For both the RfD and the RfC, alternate backgrounds (and therefore different RfDs and RfCs ) are described in the Toxicological Review. Cadmium is classified as a probable human carcinogen by inhalation exposure based on limited evidence from human occupational studies and on animal inhalation studies in which lung cancer was observed. Evidence for cadmium carcinogenicity via the oral route is judged inadequate.
(CAS No. 7440-43-9)
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