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Adjusted Vehicle Tailpipe CO2 Emissions by Model Year

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Automotive Manufacturing Sector's Share of U.S. GDP, $Billions (2017)

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What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2018, by establishments classified into NAICS 3311 (iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing) and NAICS 3312 (steel product manufacturing from purchased steel). Total air emissions for this sector decreased from 27.4 million pounds in 1996 to 7.6 million pounds in 2018.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and stack air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Stack air emissions are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. . In addition to TRI reporting, chemical manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

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What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2018, by establishments classified into NAICS 3311 (iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing) and NAICS 3312 (steel product manufacturing from purchased steel). Total air emissions for this sector decreased from 27.4 million pounds in 1996 to 7.6 million pounds in 2018.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and stack air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Stack air emissions are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. . In addition to TRI reporting, chemical manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

This sector includes iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing (NAICS 3311) and steel product manufacturing from purchased steel (NAICS 3312). Establishments in this sector manufacture steel for use in consumer products and for use by other industries, including construction trades and automotive manufacturing.

Iron and steel facilities are either integrated mills or electric arc furnaces (EAFs). Integrated mills produce steel by combining pig iron with steel scrap to produce refined steel. These facilities may use coal, natural gas, or other fuels and raw materials, in combination with iron, to produce steel. EAFs melt steel scrap, and in some cases limited amounts of other iron-bearing materials, to produce new steel. Due to the large percentages of recycled steel used in EAFs, they may require additional refining to produce various grades of steel.

For more information about the EPA Smart Sectors program, visit: epa.gov/smartsectors.

For more information about the iron and steel sector, visit:

Air Emissions

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Air Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter “3311” under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat steps three through five with NAICS code “3312” and sum the corresponding values
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Criteria Air Pollutants

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing National Emissions Inventory data will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a tab or comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a program that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. For 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005:
  2. For 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2017, use the following links: At each link, click the “Data Summaries” tab, then download the file “Facility-level by Pollutant.”
  3. Iron and Steel manufacturing facilities are grouped under SIC codes 3312, 3313, 3315, 3316, 3317, and 3399 for the years 1996 and 1999 and NAICS codes beginning with 3311 and 3312 for the years 2002 – 2017.
  4. Using the SIC and NAICS variables, filter for iron and steel facilities, then sum total emissions of CO, NOX, VOC, PM10, NH3, and SO2 in each year to arrive at the totals shown in this chart.
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Energy Use

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/
  2. Under “Reference case tables,” go to “View all reference case tables”
  3. Go to Table 30. Iron and Steel Industries Energy Consumption.
  4. For 2019, copy the value for “Total (trillion Btu)” under “Energy Consumption”
  5. Repeat for each Annual Energy Outlook, 2010-2019, copying only the first year of data from each. All other years in each report are projected values (AEO 2015 has 2012 and 2013 data).
  6. To access archived Annual Energy Outlook reports, select year from “Previous Editions of the AEO” at the bottom of the Annual Energy Outlook report page.
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Greenhouse Gases

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2020-04/us-ghg-inventory-chapter-text.zip. This link will open a ZIP file containing a full time series of all tables in the U.S. GHG Inventory report.
  2. Open folder for Chapter 4 – Industrial Processes
  3. For each year, 1996 through 2018, sum:
    1. In table 4-60 (CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production), “total” row, million metric tons CO2e (MMT CO2e)
    2. In table 4-62 (CO2 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production), “total” row, million metric tons CO2e (MMT CO2e)
    3. In table 4-64 (CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production), add 0.05 million metric tons CO2e (MMT CO2e)
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Hazardous Waste Generation

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://rcrapublic.epa.gov/rcrainfoweb/action/modules/br/naics/view
  2. For each reporting cycle, sum the output across all NAICS codes to calculate the total shown in this chart for the year corresponding to that reporting cycle by using the following criteria:
    1. NAICS code: 3311 and 3312
    2. Reporting cycles: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017
    3. You do not need to change the “Generators to Include” dropdown or the “Location” dropdown before hitting submit.
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Production-Related Waste Managed

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Total Production Related Waste check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1998” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter “3311” under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat steps three through five with NAICS code “3312” and sum the corresponding values
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Recycling of Waste Chemicals

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Recycling Onsite Current Year Quantity check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996" into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter “3311” under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat steps three through five with NAICS code “3312” and sum the corresponding values
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Releases to Land

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Land Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter “3311” under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat steps three through five with NAICS code “3312” and sum the corresponding values
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Volume of Recycled Goods

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/iron_&_steel_scrap/
  2. For years 2015 – 2019, select the 2020 “Iron and Steel Scrap” report under “Mineral Commodities Summaries”
  3. Sum the values for “Home scrap” and “Purchased scrap” in the first table in the PDF file.
  4. For 2014, repeat the above steps using the 2017 PDF file.
  5. Repeat step 4 for year 1996 – 2013, using the PDF file corresponding to five years after the given year (e.g., 2011 data is from the 2016 report).
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Water Discharges

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Water Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter “3311” under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat steps three through five with NAICS code “3312” and sum the corresponding values
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Dollar Value of Gross Output

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.bea.gov/industry/gdpbyind_data.htm
  2. Select “Access Underlying Detail tables.”
  3. Select “Gross Output by Industry.”
  4. Select “U.Gross Output by Industry (A).” Then on the next page, click “Next Step.” The resulting data table will then load.
  5. Select “Modify” in the upper-right-hand corner of the table. In the resulting window:
    1. Set the scale as “Billions”
    2. Set the start year as “1997”
    3. Set the end year as “Most Recent”
    4. In the code list, select only “(3311IS) Iron and steel mills and manufacturing from purchased steel.” Do not select any other item in this menu, doing so may double count.
    5. Click “Refresh Table”
  6. Row 1 of the resulting table, labeled “Iron and steel mills and manufacturing from purchased steel" provides the corresponding data shown in this chart for each year.
  7. (Optional) Download the dataset in XLS, CSV, or PDF format.
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Employment

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing employment data from the Census Bureau will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a software package that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. Go to https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cbp/data/datasets.html
  2. Click on any link labeled “County Business Patterns: YEAR.” On the resulting page, click the “Complete U.S. File” link and download the corresponding file. Repeat this process for each year from 1998 to 2018.
  3. Open each file in a software package of your choice that can process comma-delimited text files. Repeat the steps below for each file.
  4. For entities with suppressed data, the Census Bureau replaces all employment values with zeroes and this underestimates the total number of employees in each sector. Using your software package, replace the suppression flags with the midpoint of the Data Suppression Flag employment ranges per the table below.
    Empflag Data Suppression Flag Employment Size Class Midpoint
    Min Max
    A 0 19 10
    B 20 99 60
    C 100 249 175
    E 250 499 375
    F 500 999 750
    G 1000 2,499 1,750
    H 2,500 4,999 3,750
    I 5000 9,999 7,500
    J 10,000 24,999 17,500
    K 25,000 49,999 37,500
    L 50,000 99,999 75,000
    M 100,000 >100,000 100,000
  5. In your software package, filter the data for NAICS codes that begin with 3311 and 3312.
  6. With the filter in place, aggregate the “emp” column across all records.
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Produced Goods

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/iron_&_steel/
  2. For years 2015 – 2019, select the 2020 “Iron and Steel” report under “Mineral Commodities Summaries”
  3. Use the value uner "Raw steel production"
  4. For 2014, repeat the above steps using the 2019 PDF file.
  5. Repeat step 4 for year 1996 – 2013, using the PDF file corresponding to five years after the given year (e.g., data for 2013 is in the 2018 report).
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