Chemical Manufacturing
SmartSectors

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Environmental Performance Indicators







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What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2016, by establishments classified into NAICS 325 (chemical manufacturing). Total air emissions decreased from 425 million pounds in 1996 to 160 million pounds in 2016.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and point source air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Point source air emissions, also called stack emissions, are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. In addition to TRI reporting, chemical manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

View Impact Per Unit of Production View Environmental and Economic Benchmarks

What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2016, by establishments classified into NAICS 325 (chemical manufacturing). Total air emissions decreased from 425 million pounds in 1996 to 160 million pounds in 2016.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and point source air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Point source air emissions, also called stack emissions, are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. In addition to TRI reporting, chemical manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

This sector includes chemical manufacturing (NAICS 325). Establishments in this sector use chemical processes to transform raw materials and formulate products, including basic chemicals, resins, paints, and inputs to the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.

The sector comprises "commodity" and "specialty-batch" manufacturers. Commodity manufacturers generate chemical products in large volumes in response to homogenous specifications. Specialty-batch manufacturers generate products for niche markets, developing complex products in small quantities which are then processed into higher value-added products. This sector does not include all industries transforming raw materials by chemical process. For more information about the companies classified into NAICS 325, visit the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

For more information about the EPA Smart Sectors program, visit: epa.gov/smartsectors.

For more information about the chemical manufacturing sector, visit:

Air Emissions

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Air Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Industry Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2016” into the bottom form field. Then Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary Industry Code – switch Operator to “Equal to,” and enter 325 (Chemicals) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Criteria Air Pollutants

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/air-pollutant-emissions-trends-data
  2. Click the first link on this page: “Average Annual Emissions (1 pg, 93 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970-2017.” The resulting download will be a spreadsheet file, “national_tier1_caps.xlsx.”
  3. This spreadsheet file contains a series of worksheets with data, including: 1) “CO” 2) “NOX” 3) “PM10Primary” 4) “PM25Primary” 5) “SO2” 6) “VOC” 7) “NH3.” In each of these worksheets, there is a row labeled “CHEMICAL & ALLIED PRODUCT MFG” in Column A. For 1996 through 2016, sum the value in this row across each of the worksheets, excluding the “PM25Primary” worksheet. This sum corresponds to the total shown in this chart for each year.
    1. The values in the “PM25Primary” worksheet are a subset of values in the “PM10Primary” worksheet, and should not be added to the “PM10Primary” values.
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Greenhouse Gases

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/ghg-reporting-program-data-sets
  2. Click the “2017 Data Summary Spreadsheets” link. In the resulting ZIP file, open the spreadsheet, “ghgp_data_by_year_8_19_2018.xlsx.” Navigate to the first worksheet, “Direct Emitters.”
  3. Apply a filter to Column K (Primary NAICS Code), displaying only the values for NAICS Codes beginning with 325.
  4. With the filter from Step 3 applied, for each year, 2011 through 2017, sum the relevant column of “Total reported direct emissions.” For example, Column T corresponds to 2011, Column S corresponds to 2012, etc.
  5. For 2010 data, open the spreadsheet, “ghgp_data_2010_8_19_2018” from the ZIP file. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 in this file; the 2010 “Total reported direct emissions” data are in Column N of the “Direct Emitters” worksheet.
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Energy Use

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2002/
  2. Click the first item in the table, “Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use)”
  3. Download the XLS version of “Table 1.1 By Mfg. Industry & Region (physical units),” which is the first item listed.
  4. Use the links above the table to select 2006, then repeat Steps 2 and 3. Then do the same after selecting 2010 and 2014.
  5. For 1998, use the links above the table to select 1998. Then, click the first item in the table, “Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use).” Then download the XLS version of the third file listed, “First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Physical Units or Btu.”
  6. Within each of the downloaded files, refer to the “Total (trillion Btu)” value in the “Total United States” section of the table for the row labeled with NAICS Code 325 and “Chemicals.” These values correspond to the data shown in this chart for each corresponding year.
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Hazardous Waste Generation

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://rcrainfo.epa.gov/rcrainfoweb/action/modules/br/naics/view
  2. For each reporting cycle, sum the output across all NAICS codes to calculate the total shown in this chart for the year corresponding to that reporting cycle by using the following criteria:
    • NAICS code: 325 (includes all five- and six-digit chemical manufacturing NAICS codes beginning with 325).
    • Reporting cycles: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015
    • You do not need to change the “Generators to Include” dropdown or the “Location” dropdown before hitting submit.
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Production-Related Waste Managed

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Total Production Related Waste check the box above SUM
    3. Industry Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2016” into the bottom form field. Then Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary Industry Code – switch Operator to “Equal to,” and enter 325 (Chemicals) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Recycling of Waste Chemicals

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Recycling Onsite Current Year Quantity check the box above SUM
    3. Industry Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2016” into the bottom form field. Then Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary Industry Code – switch Operator to “Equal to,” and enter 325 (Chemicals) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Releases to Land

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    • Reporting Year
    • In the row immediately below Land Total Release check the box above SUM
    • Industry Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page::
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2016” into the bottom form field. Then Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary Industry Code – switch Operator to “Equal to,” and enter 325 (Chemicals) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Water Discharges

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on "Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information."
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    • Reporting Year
    • In the row immediately below Water Total Release check the box above SUM
    • Industry Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2016” into the bottom form field. Then Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary Industry Code – switch Operator to “Equal to,” and enter 325 (Chemicals) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Dollar Value of Gross Output

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.bea.gov/industry/gdpbyind_data.htm
  2. Select “Access Underlying Detail tables.”
  3. Select “Gross Output by Industry.”
  4. Select “U.Gross Output by Industry (A).” Then on the next page, click “Next Step.” The resulting data table will then load.
  5. Select “Modify” in the upper-right-hand corner of the table. In the resulting window:
    1. Set the scale as “Billions”
    2. Set the start year as “1997”
    3. Set the start year as “Most Recent”
    4. In the code list, select only “(325) Chemical products.” Do not select any other item in this menu, doing so may double count.
    5. Click “Refresh Table”
  6. Row 1 of the resulting table, labeled “Chemical products” provides the corresponding data shown in this chart for each year.
  7. (Optional) Download the dataset in XLS, CSV, or PDF format.
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Employment

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing employment data from the Census Bureau will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a software package that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. Go to https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cbp/data/datasets.html
  2. Click on any link labeled “County Business Patterns: YEAR.” On the resulting page, click the “Complete U.S. File” link and download the corresponding file. Repeat this process for each year from 1998 to 2016.
  3. Open each file in a software package of your choice that can process comma-delimited text files. Repeat the steps below for each file.
  4. For entities with suppressed data, the Census Bureau replaces all employment values with zeroes and this underestimates the total number of employees in each sector. Using your software package, replace the suppression flags with the midpoint of the Data Suppression Flag employment ranges per the table below.
    Empflag Data Suppression Flag Employment Size Class Midpoint
    Min Max
    A 0 19 10
    B 20 99 60
    C 100 249 175
    E 250 499 375
    F 500 999 750
    G 1000 2,499 1,750
    H 2,500 4,999 3,750
    I 5000 9,999 7,500
    J 10,000 24,999 17,500
    K 25,000 49,999 37,500
    L 50,000 99,999 75,000
    M 100,000 >100,000 100,000
  5. In your software package, filter the data for NAICS codes that begin with 325.
  6. With the filter in place, aggregate the “emp” column across all records.
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