Iron and Steel
SmartSectors

The cement and concrete production sector employs approximately 196,700 people.

The energy intensity of cement production declined by 14% between 1998 and 2014.

Since 2009, GDP of the Cement & Concrete sector has increased by approximately 42

In 2017, the U.S. was a net importer of cement and concrete, importing approximately $2 billion and exporting approximately $0.5 billion.

Cement & Concrete sector banner image

The cement and concrete production sector employs approximately 196,700 people.

The energy intensity of cement production declined by 14% between 1998 and 2014.

Since 2009, GDP of the Cement & Concrete sector has increased by approximately 42%

In 2017, the U.S. was a net importer of cement and concrete, importing approximately $2 billion and exporting approximately $0.5 billion.

Use the checkboxes below to select an environmental performance indicator and an economic benchmark.

Environmental Performance Indicators







Economic Benchmarks



What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2018, by establishments classified into NAICS code 3273 (cement and concrete product manufacturing). Total air emissions for this sector decreased from 9.3 million pounds in 1996 to 5.8 million pounds in 2018.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and stack air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Stack air emissions are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. In addition to TRI reporting, cement and concrete manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

View Impact Per Unit of Production View Environmental and Economic Benchmarks

What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2018, by establishments classified into NAICS code 3273 (cement and concrete product manufacturing). Total air emissions for this sector decreased from 9.3 million pounds in 1996 to 5.8 million pounds in 2018.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and stack air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Stack air emissions are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. In addition to TRI reporting, cement and concrete manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

The cement and concrete sector (NAICS 3273) comprises cement and concrete product manufacturing. Firms in this sector manufacture cements, act as batch or mixing plants, produce and deliver unhardened concrete, and manufacture concrete products.

Cements are finely ground powders that solidify into a hard mass when mixed with water. Broadly, cements are grouped into hydraulic and non-hydraulic binding agents. Hydraulic cements are far more commonly used, as they can set and harden even in excess water. Non-hydraulic binders such as lime are used in some mortars but must be kept sufficiently dry for proper solidification.

The concrete manufacturing industry is comprised of facilities that manufacture ready-mix concrete, including concrete pipes, bricks, blocks and other concrete products. Concrete is an artificial rock-like material made from a proportioned mix of hydraulic cement, water, crushed stone, and air. To ensure it is well-formed, vibration is often applied to still-setting concrete to shake extra air out and help the crushed stone settle properly. Cement and concrete are both low-cost building materials.

For more information about the EPA Smart Sectors program, visit: epa.gov/smartsectors.

For more information about the cement and concrete sector, visit:

Air Emissions

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Air Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3273 (Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Criteria air pollutants

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing National Emissions Inventory data will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a tab or comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a program that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. Download the data files from each of the following links:
    1. 1996 - ftp://newftp.epa.gov/air/nei/nei_criteria_summaries/1996criteriasummaryfiles/1996facilitysummarymade08102005.zip
    2. 1999 – ftp://newftp.epa.gov/air/nei/nei_criteria_summaries/1999criteriasummaryfiles/1996facilitysummarymade08102005.zip
    3. 2002 – ftp://newftp.epa.gov/air/nei/nei_criteria_summaries/2002summaryfiles/2002_NEI_v3_Facility_Sums_Sep10_2007.zip
    4. 2005 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2008-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data/2008neiv3_facility.zip
    5. 2008 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2008-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    6. 2011 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2011-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    7. 2014 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2014-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    8. 2017 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2017-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    For 1996 – 2005, a ZIP folder should begin downloading automatically. For 2008 - 2017, click the “Data Summaries” tab, then download the file “Facility-level by Pollutant.”
  2. Cement and concrete manufacturing facilities are grouped under NAICS codes beginning with 3273 for the years 2002 – 2017. To identify the SIC codes corresponding to NAICS 3273 for the 1996 and 1999 datasets, use the following crosswalk: https://www.naics.com/sic-naics-crosswalk-search-results/
  3. Using the SIC and NAICS codes, filter for paper products facilities, then sum total emissions of CO, NOX, VOC, PM10, NH3, and SO2 in each year to arrive at the totals shown in this chart.
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Greenhouse Gases

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2020-04/us-ghg-inventory-chapter-text.zip. This link will open a ZIP file containing a full time series of all tables in the U.S. GHG Inventory report.
  2. Open folder for Chapter 4 – Industrial Processes
  3. In table 4-3 (CO2 Emissions from Cement Production), the 1996 – 2018 values in the “MMT CO2” column correspond to the values shown in this chart.
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Energy Use

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/
  2. Under “Reference case tables,” go to “View all reference case tables”
  3. Go to Table 29. Cement and Lime Industry Energy Consumption.
  4. For 2019, copy the value for “Total (trillion Btu)” under “Energy Consumption”
  5. Repeat for each Annual Energy Outlook, 2010-2019, copying only the first year of data from each. All other years in each report are projected values (AEO 2015 has 2012 and 2013 data).

Note – These values correspond only to cement production.

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Hazardous Waste Generation

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://rcrainfo.epa.gov/rcrainfoweb/action/modules/br/naics/view
  2. Repeat the following steps for each reporting cycle. You will be able to access data for one year and one NAICS code at a time. For each reporting cycle, the output for NAICS 3273 is equal to the value shown in this chart.
    1. NAICS code: 3273 CEMENT AND CONCRETE PRODUCT MANUFACTURING
    2. Reporting cycles: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017
    3. You do not need to change the “Generators to Include” dropdown or the “Location” dropdown before hitting submit.
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Production-Related Waste Managed

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Total Production Related Waste check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1998” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3273 (Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Recycling of Waste Chemicals

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Land Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3273 (Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Releases to Land

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Land Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3273 (Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Water Discharges

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Water Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3273 (Cement and Concrete Product Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
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Dollar Value of Gross Output

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.bea.gov/industry/gdpbyind_data.htm
  2. Select “Access Underlying Detail tables.”
  3. Select “Gross Output by Industry.”
  4. Select “U.Gross Output by Industry (A),” then select “Detail Level.”
  5. Click the “Next Step” button. The resulting data table will then load.
  6. Select “Modify” in the upper-right-hand corner of the table. In the resulting window:
    1. Set the scale as “Billions”
    2. Set the start year as “1997”
    3. Set the start year as “Most Recent”
    4. Click “Refresh Table”
  7. Click “Download” and choose your preferred download format.
  8. Line 52 of the resulting table (Cement manufacturing) contains the values shown in this chart.

Note – These values correspond only to cement production.

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Employment

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing employment data from the Census Bureau will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a software package that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. Go to https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cbp/data/datasets.html
  2. Click on any link labeled “County Business Patterns: YEAR.” On the resulting page, click the “Complete U.S. File” link and download the corresponding file. Repeat this process for each year from 1998 to 2018.
  3. Open each file in a software package of your choice that can process comma-delimited text files. Repeat the steps below for each file.
  4. For entities with suppressed data, the Census Bureau replaces all employment values with zeroes, and this underestimates the total number of employees in each sector. Using your software package, replace the suppression flags with the midpoint of the Data Suppression Flag employment ranges per the table below.
    Empflag Data Suppression Flag Employment Size Class Midpoint
    Min Max
    A 0 19 10
    B 20 99 60
    C 100 249 175
    E 250 499 375
    F 500 999 750
    G 1000 2,499 1,750
    H 2,500 4,999 3,750
    I 5000 9,999 7,500
    J 10,000 24,999 17,500
    K 25,000 49,999 37,500
    L 50,000 99,999 75,000
    M 100,000 >100,000 100,000
  5. In your software package, filter the data for NAICS codes that begin with 3273.
  6. With the filter in place, aggregate the “emp” column across all records.
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Production

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.usgs.gov/centers/nmic/cement-statistics-and-information
  2. Open the 2020 PDF report for Cement.
  3. For years 2015 – 2019, sum the values of the “Portland and masonry cement” and “Clinker” lines in the production table on the first page of the PDF report.
  4. Use the 2001 – 2019 PDF reports to calculate corresponding values for years 1996 – 2014.
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