Automotive
SmartSectors

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Adjusted Vehicle Tailpipe CO2 Emissions by Model Year

Adjusted Vehicle Fuel Economy (MPG) by Model Year

Automotive Manufacturing Sector's Share of U.S. GDP, $Billions (2017)

Annual Vehicle Sales

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Environmental Performance Indicators





Economic Benchmarks



What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2018, by establishments classified into NAICS 3361 (motor vehicle manufacturing), 3362 (motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing), and 3363 (motor vehicle parts manufacturing). Total air emissions for this sector decreased from 78 million pounds in 1996 to 15 million pounds in 2018.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and stack air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Stack air emissions are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. In addition to TRI reporting, motor vehicle manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

View Impact Per Unit of Production View Environmental and Economic Benchmarks

What is in this chart?

This chart shows total air emissions, as reported annually to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) between 1996 and 2018, by establishments classified into NAICS 3361 (motor vehicle manufacturing), 3362 (motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing), and 3363 (motor vehicle parts manufacturing). Total air emissions for this sector decreased from 78 million pounds in 1996 to 15 million pounds in 2018.

What are TRI air emissions?

Total air emissions reported to TRI include fugitive air emissions and stack air emissions. Fugitive air emissions are all releases to air that do not occur through a confined air stream; such emissions may include equipment leaks, releases from building ventilation systems, and evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills. Stack air emissions are releases to air that occur through a confined air stream, such as stacks, ducts, or pipes.

The quantity of releases does not indicate the level of health risk posed by the emissions. TRI data can vary from year to year at the facility and sector levels for a variety of reasons. For questions about specific values, contact TRI. In addition to TRI reporting, motor vehicle manufacturers are subject to statutory and regulatory requirements, including permitting.

The automotive manufacturing sector includes motor vehicle manufacturing (NAICS 3361), motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing (NAICS 3362), and motor vehicle parts manufacturing (NAICS 3363). Facilities included in this sector assemble automobiles, light trucks, and utility vehicles, or manufacture automotive vehicle parts and bodies. In 2012, the automotive manufacturing sector included 327 motor vehicle manufacturing facilities, 1,886 motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing facilities, and 5,160 motor vehicle parts manufacturing facilities (U.S. Census Bureau, 2015).

Automotive manufacturing processes may differ by company and facility, but broadly stated, involve the processing of raw materials such as iron, oil, gas, coal, lead, zinc, gold, and other nonmetallic minerals to produce components such as plastics, paints, glass, rubber, and steel. These components are shaped and combined to create products such as roll-formed or stamped metals, composite plastics, and semiconductors, from which automobile parts are then built. Parts are then assembled, into passenger vehicles, commercial trucks, and buses.

The automotive market in the United States is a mature market, yet remains one of the largest producers and consumers of motor vehicles (United States International Trade Commission). The most up-to-date data on automotive production indicate that in 2018, U.S. automotive manufacturers produced over 11 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles, representing approximately 12 percent of total worldwide production.

For more information about the EPA Smart Sectors program, visit: epa.gov/smartsectors.

For more information about the automotive manufacturing sector, visit:

Air Emissions

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Air Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3361 (Motor Vehicle Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat Step 5b for the following NAICS codes, and aggregate the results for all three NAICS codes. Note that once you have accessed your search results, you can use your browser’s “back” button to go back to Step 5 and change the NAICS code accordingly, without completing Steps 1 through 4 again.
    1. 3362 (Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing)
    2. 3363 (Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing)
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Criteria Air Pollutants

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing National Emissions Inventory data will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a tab or comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a program that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. Download the data files from each of the following links:
    1. 1996 - ftp://newftp.epa.gov/air/nei/nei_criteria_summaries/1996criteriasummaryfiles/1996facilitysummarymade08102005.zip
    2. 1999 – ftp://newftp.epa.gov/air/nei/nei_criteria_summaries/1999criteriasummaryfiles/1996facilitysummarymade08102005.zip
    3. 2002 – ftp://newftp.epa.gov/air/nei/nei_criteria_summaries/2002summaryfiles/2002_NEI_v3_Facility_Sums_Sep10_2007.zip
    4. 2005 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2008-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data/2008neiv3_facility.zip
    5. 2008 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2008-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    6. 2011 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2011-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    7. 2014 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2014-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
    8. 2017 – https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2017-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data
  2. For 1996 – 2005, a ZIP folder should begin downloading automatically. For 2008 - 2017, click the “Data Summaries” tab, then download the file “Facility-level by Pollutant.”
  3. Automotive manufacturing facilities are grouped under SIC codes 2399, 2396, 3519, 3592, 3647, 3694, 3711, 3713, 3714, 3715, 3716, 3792, 2399 and 3465 for the years 1996 and 1999 and NAICS codes beginning with 3361, 3362 and 3363 for the years 2002 – 2017.
  4. Using the SIC and NAICS variables, filter for paper products facilities, then sum total emissions of CO, NOX, VOC, PM10, NH3, and SO2 in each year to arrive at the totals shown in this chart.
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Greenhouse Gases

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/ghg-reporting-program-data-sets
  2. Click the “2018 Data Summary Spreadsheets” link. In the resulting ZIP file, open the spreadsheet, “ghgp_data_by_year.xlsx.” Navigate to the first worksheet, “Direct Emitters.”
  3. Apply a filter to Column K (Primary NAICS Code), displaying only the values for NAICS Codes beginning with 3361, 3362, and 3363.
  4. With the filter from Step 3 applied, for each year, 2011 through 2018, sum the relevant column of “Total reported direct emissions.” For example, Column T corresponds to 2011, Column S corresponds to 2012, etc.
  5. For 2010 data, open the spreadsheet, “ghgp_data_2010.xlsx” from the ZIP file. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 in this file; the 2010 “Total reported direct emissions” data are in Column N of the “Direct Emitters” worksheet.
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Hazardous Waste Generation

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://rcrainfo.epa.gov/rcrainfoweb/action/modules/br/naics/view
  2. Repeat the following steps for each NAICS code and each reporting cycle. You will be able to access data for one year and one NAICS code at a time. For each reporting cycle, sum the output across the three NAICS code to calculate the total shown in this chart for the year corresponding to that reporting cycle.
    1. NAICS code: 3361 MOTOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURING; 3362 MOTOR VEHICLE BODY TRAILING MANUFACTURING; 3363 MOTOR VEHICLE PARTS MANUFACTURING
    2. Reporting cycles: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017
    3. You do not need to change the “Generators to Include” dropdown or the “Location” dropdown before hitting submit.
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Production-Related Waste Managed

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Total Production Related Waste check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3361 (Motor Vehicle Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat Step 5b for the following NAICS codes, and aggregate the results for all three NAICS codes. Note that once you have accessed your search results, you can use your browser’s “back” button to go back to Step 5 and change the NAICS code accordingly, without completing Steps 1 through 4 again.
    1. 3362 (Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing)
    2. 3363 (Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing)
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Recycling of Waste Chemicals

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Recycling Onsite Current Year Quantity check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3361 (Motor Vehicle Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat Step 5b for the following NAICS codes, and aggregate the results for all three NAICS codes. Note that once you have accessed your search results, you can use your browser’s “back” button to go back to Step 5 and change the NAICS code accordingly, without completing Steps 1 through 4 again.
    1. 3362 (Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing)
    2. 3363 (Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing)
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Releases to Land

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Land Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3361 (Motor Vehicle Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat Step 5b for the following NAICS codes, and aggregate the results for all three NAICS codes. Note that once you have accessed your search results, you can use your browser’s “back” button to go back to Step 5 and change the NAICS code accordingly, without completing Steps 1 through 4 again.
    1. 3362 (Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing)
    2. 3363 (Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing)
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Water Discharges

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.epa.gov/enviro/tri-ez-search.
  2. Scroll down and click on “Flat (Denormalized) Form R – A flat view of the TRI database that contains a majority of the available TRI information.
  3. Select the following variables from the list of data elements provided.
    1. Reporting Year
    2. In the row immediately below Water Total Release check the box above SUM
    3. Primary NAICS Code
  4. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on “STEP 3: Enter Search Criteria”
  5. On the next page:
    1. For Reporting Year – switch Operator to “Between.” In the pop-up box that results, enter “1996” into the top form field, and “2018” into the bottom form field. Then click Click “Enter BETWEEN Range in Search Field.” In the Sort Column field, enter “1.” (You can leave the other columns blank or unchanged.)
    2. For Primary NAICS Code – switch Operator to “Beginning with,” and enter 3361 (Motor Vehicle Manufacturing) under Search Value. Then check the last box to the right under “Where Only.”
    3. Click on “Search database” or “Output to CSV File”
  6. Repeat Step 5b for the following NAICS codes, and aggregate the results for all three NAICS codes. Note that once you have accessed your search results, you can use your browser’s “back” button to go back to Step 5 and change the NAICS code accordingly, without completing Steps 1 through 4 again.
    1. 3362 (Motor Vehicle Body and Trailer Manufacturing)
    2. 3363 (Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing)
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Dollar Value of Gross Output

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.bea.gov/industry/gdpbyind_data.htm
  2. Select “Access Underlying Detail tables.”
  3. Select “Gross Output by Industry.”
  4. Select “U.Gross Output by Industry (A).” Then, when prompted, click “Next Step.” The resulting data table will then load.
  5. Select “Modify” in the upper-right-hand corner of the table. In the resulting window:
    1. Set the scale as “Billions”
    2. Set the start year as “1997”
    3. Set the start year as “Most Recent”
    4. In the code list, select only “(3361MV) Motor vehicles, bodies and trailers, and parts.” Do not select any other item in this menu, doing so may double count.
    5. Click “Refresh Table”
  6. Row 1 of the resulting table, labeled “Motor vehicles, bodies and trailers, and parts” provides the corresponding data shown in this chart for each year.
  7. (Optional) Download the dataset in XLS, CSV, or PDF format.
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Employment

How to Download Your Data

Note: Processing employment data from the Census Bureau will require use of data processing software. The data are available in a comma-delimited text format that must be imported into a software package that will allow you to analyze the file.

  1. Go to https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cbp/data/datasets.html
  2. Click on any link labeled “County Business Patterns: YEAR.” On the resulting page, click the “Complete U.S. File” link and download the corresponding file. Repeat this process for each year from 1998 to 2018.
  3. Open each file in a software package of your choice that can process comma-delimited text files. Repeat the steps below for each file.
  4. For entities with suppressed data, the Census Bureau replaces all employment values with zeroes and this underestimates the total number of employees in each sector. Using your software package, replace the suppression flags with the midpoint of the Data Suppression Flag employment ranges per the table below.
    Empflag Data Suppression Flag Employment Size Class Midpoint
    Min Max
    A 0 19 10
    B 20 99 60
    C 100 249 175
    E 250 499 375
    F 500 999 750
    G 1000 2,499 1,750
    H 2,500 4,999 3,750
    I 5000 9,999 7,500
    J 10,000 24,999 17,500
    K 25,000 49,999 37,500
    L 50,000 99,999 75,000
    M 100,000 >100,000 100,000
  5. In your software package, filter the data for NAICS codes that begin with 3361, 3362, and 3363.
  6. With the filter in place, aggregate the “emp” column across all records.
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Production

How to Download Your Data
  1. Go to https://www.bts.gov/content/world-motor-vehicle-production-selected-countries
  2. Click the link under the words “Dataset Excel:” which is described as “Table_01_23_022620.xlsx.”
  3. Scroll down to row 107. This row provides the corresponding data shown in the chart for each year, starting with 1996 (Column H) through 2018 (Column AD).
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