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ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS
Hutchins*, S R., M White*, D. Fine, AND T. L. Price. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS. Presented at Battelle 7th International In-Situ & On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, Orlando, FL, June 02 - 06, 2003.
To inform the public.
A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl derivatives of phenolic groups and trimethylsilyl derivatives of hydroxy groups, and analysis using negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Deuterated estrogens are added to each sample prior to solid phase extraction to provide an isotope dilution method for correction of matrix effects. Detection limits are approximately 0.5 ng/L in ground water and 10 ng/L in swine lagoon effluent.
This method was used to evaluate the potential for ground water contamination by swine Concentrated Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) through either land application of swine effluent wastewater or leakage from storage lagoons. Several lagoons and monitoring wells from each of two facilities (a nursery and a farrowing sow operation) were sampled and analyzed for all four estrogens. For the nursery, lagoon effluent concentrations ranged from 390 to 620 ng/L for estrone, 180 to 220 ng/L for estriol, and 39 to 50 ng/L for estradiol. For the farrowing sow operation, lagoon effluent concentrations ranged from 480 to 1300 ng/L for estrone, 250 to 540 ng/L for estriol, and 100 to 150 ng/L for estradiol. Ethinyl estradiol was not detected.in any of the lagoon effluent samples. Concentrations in ground water samples were generally less than 0.5 ng/L, although a couple of wells showed higher levels of estrogens, particularly estrone. These data show that swine lagoons contain significant concentrations of natural environmental estrogens, but additional work is needed to better define analytical limits and develop storage and preservation techniques for improved sample quality assurance before an assessment of the potential for ground water contamination can be made.