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ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN
Melnyk, L. J., C. E. Bernard, AND J. Raymer. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN. Presented at International Society of Exposure Analysis, Philadelphia, PA, October 17-21, 2004.
Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and questionnaires were collected for each participant. These measurements were used to assess potential indirect dietary exposures to esfenvalerate from activities the child displayed during a routine day. The cheese slice was used to obtain esfenvalerate transferred from the hands and surfaces due to food contact. Accelerometers were used to indicate each child's activity level. Both transfer and activity are essential parameters when determining the total dietary exposure of a child.
The children in the daycare were visited six times. Each visit allowed certain monitoring to take place. Questionnaires were given to the teachers and parents of the participants. Surface wipes indicated between 0.3 to 62.7 ng/cm2 of the pesticide with the highest levels found on the interior floor. Surface transfer to cheese measured 0.2 - 1.9 ng/cm2 with the highest level at the interior floor. Handled cheese contained 1 - 24 ng/g of transferable pesticide. The video taping and questionnaire responses were used to interpret the accelerometer counts. Results indicated that the cheese slice was successfully used to collect transfer information from hands and surfaces, accelerometer placement on non-dominant hand produced the highest readings but required more time on participants to obtain useful data, and questionnaire responses by the teacher agreed more closely with the video and standard food results.
The purpose of this research is to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessments of young children by improving EPA's ability to measure exposures in the context of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments. The general objective of this research is to support FQPA children's exposure assessment efforts by improving procedures and reducing uncertainty in measurements for dietary exposure of young children, a critically needed area for improved risk assessment. Specifically, this research will evaluate a protocol and companion model for measuring or otherwise assessing the combined dietary intake of a young child as influenced by pesticides, or other environmental contaminants, which contaminate their foods during the eating process (indirect ingestion exposure). This research will continue to develop the important factors which are needed to characterize excess intake of pesticides by young children. Specifically, the research will measure pesticide surface transfer efficiencies for food contacts with surfaces and eating activity patterns of young children that define the frequency of contacts with contaminated surfaces. A series of reports/products are anticipated by the end of FY05.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT DIVISION
CHEMICAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH