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MULTI-SCALE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACES: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING ISSUES RELATED TO ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSES
Jarnagin, S. T. AND D. B. Jennings. MULTI-SCALE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACES: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING ISSUES RELATED TO ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSES. Presented at EPA Science Forum 2004, Washington, DC, June 1-3, 2004.
Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for determining impervious surface growth and, with concurrent daily stream flow and precipitation records, allows the historical relationship of impervious surfaces and stream flow to be explored. Satellite-based remote sensing systems offer the ability to analyze large spatial areas but do not have the temporal (historical) scale of aerial photography. Our research is focused on the development of impervious surface ?truth' data sets derived from high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. We use these local ?truth' sets to do accuracy assessments of regional-scale estimators of impervious surfaces. Our methods will both be useful in developing regional-scale estimators of impervious surfaces and in determining the accuracy and appropriate spatial scale for application for other remotely sensed estimators of imperviousness. In this presentation, we will also discuss some of the spatial and temporal issues to consider when scaling estimators of imperviousness and trying to predict water quality outcomes as a result.
Our research partners include the US Geologic Survey, Montgomery County Department of Environmental Protection, University of Maryland - Baltimore County, and the Chesapeake Bay Program. Our research results will be employable by EPA units such as Regions and the Office of Water, States and local governments, and non-governmental organizations seeking to understand the relationship between anthropogenic impervious surfaces and water quality and quantity.
Overarching Objectives and Links to Multi-year Planning
This research directly supports long-term goals established in ORD's multi-year research plans related to GPRA Goal 2 (Water Quality) and Long Term Goal WQ-2 Assessment of aquatic systems impairment. Relative to the GRPA Goal 2 Water Quality multi-year plan, this research will "provide tools to assess and diagnose impairment in aquatic systems and the sources of associated stressors" and "provide the tools to restore and protect aquatic ecosystems and to forecast the ecological, economic, and human health outcomes of alternative solutions" (Water Quality Long Term Research Goals 2 and 3).
Subtask 1 - Impervious Surface Evaluation
This subtask addresses the development of impervious surfaces estimators for local to regional scale assessments of watersheds and their landscape relationship to stream ecology. The amount of impervious surface area in a watershed is a key indicator of landscape change. As a single variable, it serves to integrate a number of concurrent interactions that directly influence a watershed's hydrology, stream chemical quality, and in-stream habitat. It is our working hypothesis that impervious surface area within a watershed, as an independently mapped predictor variable, can be used to generally track a range of watershed ecological parameters (e.g., NPS pollution, biological integrity, TMDLs) that are of concern to local, state and federal environmental managers. The specific objectives of this research are: 1) to quantitatively evaluate the varying remote sensing methods used in mapping impervious surfaces at multiple scales (local to regional), and 2) to relate the varying levels of impervious surface area in watersheds to the environmental condition of multiple water resource endpoints such as streamflow, temperature, and biota.
Subtask 2 -- Landscape Assessments and Evaluations of Best Management Practices: Watershed Demonstrations
Best Management Practices (BMP) encompass a range of strategies to reduce water pollution related to urban and agricultural activities. EPA, through Section 319(h) of the Clean Water Act [PL 92-500], provides grants to states to implement BMPs in areas with suspected or known water-quality problems. Grants for implementation of BMPs have not been tracked or monitored to document their effectiveness. Although effectiveness can be measured in many different ways, one straightforward but important measure is existence. Implementation of BMPs is a voluntary process and actual implementation is not always executed (Nowak 1992). The primary objective of this project is to assess the feasibility of using high-resolution aerial photography and other remotely sensed data to identify the existence of BMPs that were planned under the 319 program. An additional objective is to evaluate the effectives of BMPs implemented by examining monitoring data from about 5 sites in the OW National NPS monitoring system.
There are several potential benefits to determining the feasibility of using the aerial photography for identifying BMPs: 1) since BMP implementation is voluntary and some may not be implemented due to a variety of social and economic factors (Nowak 1992), remote detection of BMPs can provide data to estimate the ratio of BMPs implemented to BMPs planned; 2) remote detection of BMPs provides validation data that can be input into EPA's Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS), and 3) remote monitoring of BMPs over time could be used to develop data on BMP lifespans, providing important data related to social- and cost-effectiveness.
Subtask 3 -- TMDL Non-point Source Assessment Tool
This subtask involves the development of a software tool to assess the potential risks of water bodies to exceed TMDL threshold values established by States. When completed, the tool will allow the user to evaluate watersheds over entire regions. The too
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES DIVISION
LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY BRANCH