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DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS
Melnyk, L. J., M. R. Berry Jr., L. S. Sheldon, N. Freeman, E. D. Pellizzari, AND R. N. Kinman. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY 10(No. 6, pt. 2):723-731, (2000).
Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors: they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities; lead absorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult; and the child's development is more vulnerable to lead than adults. Low levels of lead in the blood have been shown to cause adverse health effects; the level of concern for children in currently 10 ug/dL (CDC, 1991). The contribution of dietary exposure of lead to increased blood lead levels (PbB) is not well characterized. This study was conducted with experimental techniques to obtain estimated dietary lead intakes of children 2 - 3 years of age who live in homes contaminated with environmental lead. Research objectives were to estimate potential lead intakes for children consuming food in contaminated enivornments recognizing unstructured eating patterns and to investigate potential correlations between daily dietary exposure to lead and measured blood levels. Dietary exposure was evaluated by collecting food samples that were representative of the foods the young children ate in their homes. A 24-hr duplicate of all foods plus sentinel foods, i.e., individual food items used to represent foods contaminated during handling, were collected from 48 children. Ten of the participants were revisited to obtain information on the variation in daily dietary intakes. Drinking water was evaluated both as part of the segregated beverage sample composite and by itself. Additional information collected included lead concentrations from hand wipes, floor wipes, and venous blood; and questionnaire responses from the caregiver on activities potentially related to exposure.
The overall objective of this research is to support NERL's human exposure measurement and exposure modeling efforts by reducing the amount of uncertainty in the dietary measurements critically needed for improved risk assessment. Specifically, the research provides the tools needed to collect and analyze food samples and to design and understand dietary measurements. The current specific objectives are:
1. to investigate more efficient methods for characterizing population exposures in dietary measurements studies (short-term subtask initiated in FY00; extramural);
2. to develop and improve analytical methods for contaminants in composite food samples collected in dietary measurements studies (long-term subtask; in-house);
3. to improve the model and food database system used in measurements studies for estimating dietary exposure and identifying sources (long-term subtask; extramural).
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LAB
MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT DIVISION
CHEMICAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH