Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Pellet-Fueled Gasifier Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources
Champion, W., S. Warren, I. Kooter, W. Preston, Todd Krantz, D. DeMarini, AND J. Jetter. Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Pellet-Fueled Gasifier Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, Netherlands, 739(October 15 2020):139488, (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139488
Cookstove emissions affect more than 1 billion people (mostly women) around the world, and this work reflects results with the latest state-of-the-art cookstove. The impact of the results will be considered by international organizations, such as WHO, as they make decisions regarding the promotion and use of such cookstoves.
Emissions from solid-fuel burning cookstoves are associated with 3 to 4 million premature deaths annually and contribute significantly to climate-forcing. Pellet-fueled gasifier stoves have some emission factors (EFs) approaching those of gas-fuel stoves; however, their emissions have not been evaluated for their biological effects. Here we used a new International Organization for Standardization (ISO) testing protocol to determine pollutant- and mutagenicity-EFs for a stove designed for pellet fuel, the Mimi Moto, and for two other forced-draft stoves, Xunda and Philips HD4012, burning pellets of hardwood or peanut hulls. The Salmonella assay-based mutagenicity-EFs (revertants/megajouledelivered) spanned three orders of magnitude and correlated highly (r = 0.99) with the EFs of the sum of 32 particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Mimi Moto/hardwood pellet combination had total-PAH- and mutagenicity-EFs 99.2 and 96.6% lower, respectively, compared to those of the Philips stove burning non-pelletized hardwood, and 100 and 99.8% lower, respectively, compared to those of a wood three-stone fire. The Xunda burning peanut hull pellets had the highest energy-based mutagenicity-EF (revertants/megajoulethermal) of the pellet stove/fuel combinations tested, which was greater than that of diesel exhaust, a known human carcinogen, and was between that of open burning of oil and a wood three-stone fire. The Mimi Moto burning hardwood pellets had the lowest energy-based mutagenicity-EF, which was between that of utility coal and utility wood boilers. Thus, without adequate ventilation even this advanced stove/fuel combination could result in poor indoor air quality.
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