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Arsenic Speciation of Contaminated Soils/Solid Wastes and Relative Oral Bioavailability in Swine and Mice
Stevens, B., A. Betts, Bradley W. Miller, Kirk G. Scheckel, R. Anderson, Karen D. Bradham, S. Casteel, David J. Thomas, AND N. Basta. Arsenic Speciation of Contaminated Soils/Solid Wastes and Relative Oral Bioavailability in Swine and Mice. Soil Systems. MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland, 2(2):27, (2018). https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems2020027
Arsenic (As) is widespread across the environment. Not only is it naturally occurring in soils and geological materials, it has been used in a variety of ways by humans since ancient times. Arsenic has been used as a medicine, pesticide, herbicide, colorant, additive to animal feed, wood treatment, and as a poison. Human use and the high toxicity potential has led to arsenic becoming the number one hazard of concern on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) National Priorities List (NPL). However abundant, the exposure and potential toxicity of As from contaminated soils is limited to the fraction of As that will dissolve in the gastrointestinal system and be available for absorption into systemic circulation (i.e. bioaccessible). Once bioaccessible, As can be absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and enter systemic circulation where the As is bioavailable. In part, the release of As from contaminated soil to gastrointestinal fluid depends on the form of solid phase arsenic also termed “As speciation.” There are several excellent spectroscopic methods capable of determining arsenic speciation, but the most authoritative and direct measurement is through X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to determine oxidation state, coordination environment, interatomic bond distances, and the identity of nearest-neighbor elements relative to the As soil contaminant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments provide an in situ look at the current chemical form of soil metals that can be used to predict the long-term fate of the metal and its potential bioavailability based on known solubility products. Among the studies correlating As XAS data with As RBA and/or IVBA, most have used mine-impacted soils. In our study, we attempted to determine if As speciation can be predictive of As bioavailability in either the juvenile swine or adult mouse bioassays from a large (27 soils) dataset which includes arsenic from diverse contamination sources and geographic regions.
Arsenic (As) is one of the most widespread, toxic elements in the environment, and human activities have resulted in a large number of contaminated areas. However abundant, the potential of As toxicity from exposure to contaminated soils is limited to the fraction that will dissolve in the gastrointestinal system and be absorbed into systemic circulation or bioavailable species. In part, the release of As from contaminated soil to gastrointestinal fluid depends on the form of solid phase As, also termed “As speciation”. In this study, 27 As-contaminated soils and solid wastes were analyzed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and results were compared to in vivo bioavailability values determined using the adult mouse and juvenile swine bioassays. Arsenic bioavailability was lowest for soils that contained large amounts of arsenopyrite and highest for materials that contained large amounts of ferric arsenates. Soil and solid waste type and properties rather than the contamination source had the greatest influence on As speciation. Principal component analysis determined that As(V) adsorbed and ferric arsenates were the dominant species that control As speciation in the selected materials. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to determine the ability of As speciation to predict bioavailability. Arsenic speciation was predictive of 27% and 16% of Relative Bioavailable (RBA) As determined using the juvenile swine and adult mouse models, respectively. Arsenic speciation can provide a conservative estimate of RBA As using MLR for the juvenile swine and adult mouse bioassays at 55% and 53%, respectively.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND AND MATERIALS MANAGEMENT DIVISION
REMEDIATION AND TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION BRANCH